Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Cyperaceae, Sedge family, Juncaceae, Rush family, Juncaginaceae, Arrow-grass family, Orchidaceae, Orchid family, Poaceae, Grass family, Potamogetonaceae, Pondweed family, Tofieldiaceae, Tofieldia family, Asteraceae (Compositae), Daisy family, Betulaceae, Birch family, Boraginaceae, Lungwort family, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Draba family, Campanulaceae, Bluebell family, Caryophyllaceae, Pink family, Crassulaceae, Stonecrop family, Diapensiaceae, Diapensia family, Empetraceae, Crowberry family, Ericaceae, Bilberry family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Pea family, Gentianaceae, Gentian family, Haloragaceae, Water-milfoil family, Hippuridaceae, Mare's tail family, Lentibulariaceae, Bladderwort family, Linaceae, Flax family, Onagraceae, Fireweed family, Papaveraceae, Poppy family, Plantaginaceae, Plantain family, Plumbaginaceae, Leadwort family, Polemoniaceae, Polemonium family, Polygonaceae, Buckwheat family, Portulacaceae, Purslane family, Primulaceae, Primrose family, Pyrolaceae, Wintergreen family, Ranunculaceae, Buttercup family, Rosaceae, Rose family, Salicaceae, Willow family, Saxifragaceae, Saxifrage family, Scrophulariaceae, Fernweed family, Sparganiaceae, Bur-reed family, Callitrichaceae, Water starwort family, Violaceae, Violet family.
Vegetative morphology. Plants herbs, or shrubs; caespitose, or not caespitose; sometimes vegetatively proliferating by bulbils on stems or leaves, or sometimes vegetatively proliferating in inflorescences, or sometimes vegetatively proliferating by fragmentation, or never vegetatively proliferating by bulbils on stems or leaves, in inflorescences, from gemmiphores and gemmae, or by fragmentation; with milky juice, or without milky juice; glandular viscid, or not glandular viscid. Taproot present, or only fibrous roots present. Roots colourless, or white, or yellow, or pallid-brown, or red-brown, or purple, or grey, or black. Ground level or underground stems horizontal, or vertical, or absent; rhizomatous, or stoloniferous; elongate, or compact. Ground level or underground stems scales present, or absent. Caudex present, or absent. Aerial stems a small transition zone between taproot and basal leaves, or branching from a tap at or near ground level into two or more branches, or developed; filiform, or not filiform. Branches not glaucous, or weakly glaucous, or strongly glaucous. Leaves present, or absent or leaf teeth; heterophyllous, or not heterophyllous; mainly basal, or distributed along the stems, or arising singly from creeping rhizomes, or basal in a rosette; alternate, or opposite, or whorled; distinctly distichous, or not distinctly distichous; persistent, or dying annually and non-persistent, or marcescent. Stipules present, or absent; sheathing, or not sheathing; glandular, or without glands. Petioles present, or absent; with sessile glands, or without sessile glands. Sheaths present, or absent; sheath collars present, or absent. Ligules present, or absent. Leaf blades simple, or compound. Leaves grass-like, or not grass-like. Blades straight or somewhat curled or circinate when young, linear or oblong or elliptic or circular or lanceolate or ovate or oblanceolate or obovate or spatulate or reniform or triangular or lyrate, with sheath auricles or with clasping auricles or without auricles, veins pinnate or with three main veins or veins palmate or veins parallel or veins reticulate or appearing single-veined or with inconspicuous veins, septate nodulose or not septate nodulose. Blade adaxial surface dull or fresh green or shiny or highly glossy or glaucous, with sessile glands or without sessile glands or with short stalked glands. Blade abaxial surface dull or shiny or highly glossy, glaucous or not glaucous, with sessile glands or without sessile glands or glandular hairs or with glandular hairs. Blade margins flat or slightly revolute or strongly revolute, blades lobed or not lobed or cut into linear divisions. Blade margins entire or glandular-dotted or serrulate or serrate or crenate or dentate or deeply divided or runcinate or revolute. Hydathodes present and conspicuous, or present but inconspicuous, or absent. Blade apices acuminate, or acute, or obtuse, or rounded, or retuse. Leaflet arrangement palmate, or pinnate, or digitate, or bipinnately divided, or decompound. Apical leaflet base distinctly stipitate, or not distinctly stipitate.
Reproductive morphology. Plants monoecious, or dioecious, or bisexual, or agamospermic. Flowering stems shorter than the leaves, or about as high as the leaves, or conspicuously taller than the leaves; rooting at the lower nodes, or not rooting at the lower nodes. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence present, or absent; caducous, or persistent; with calloused tip, or without calloused tip. Flowers solitary, or in inflorescences. Inflorescences with bulbils, or without bulbils; spicate, or racemose, or paniculate, or cymose, or corymbose, or fasciculate, or with flowers in umbels, or with flowers in a dichasium, or head-like, or catkins, or solitary heads, or of several flowering heads, or a spike of spikes, or a raceme of spikes. Pedicels present, or absent, or subtending flowering heads. Involucral bracts present, or absent, or on pedicels with bract leaves. Inner involucral bracts apex prominently horned, or sometimes callused, but without a prominent horn, or with or without horns or calluses, or lacerate, or entire. Two glumes present, or glumes absent. Callus differentiated, or not differentiated. Flowers radially symmetrical (actinomorphic), or bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic); unisexual, or bisexual. Perianth represented by lodicules, or bristles (the "cotton" of cotton grasses), or a perigynium. Sepals conventional, or absent, or modified (but not a pappus), or represented by a pappus. Epicalyx present, or absent. Sepals herbaceous, or scarious, or petaloid, or fleshy, or leathery, or membranous with prominent ribs; accrescent, or non-accrescent. Calyx with sessile glands, or without sessile glands. Calyx margins ciliate, or margins without cilia. Calyx teeth with abundant glandular verrucae, or without or with few glandular verrucae. Petals conventional, or absent, or modified as bristles or perigynia; shorter than the calyx, or same length as the calyx, or longer than the calyx; with contrasting markings, or without contrasting markings; spurred, or not spurred. Corolla helmet prolonged into a long beak, or not prolonged into a long beak; with 2 small teeth at the apex, or without 2 small teeth at the apex. Stamens present, or absent; 1–100; stamen filaments markedly unequal in length, or all equal in length; fused to the corolla, or free of the corolla. Anthers splitting longitudinally, or opening with a terminal pore. Receptacle surface glabrous, or hairy. Styles present, or absent. Fruit surrounded by a perigynium, or not surrounded by a perigynium. Perigynia inflated, or not inflated; not keeled, or with 2 keels, or with 3 keels; apex deeply bidentate, or oblique, becoming slightly bidentate, or not bidentate or oblique. Fruit with calyx persisting, or without calyx persisting, or surrounded by a perianth persisting as bristles; glabrous, or hairy, or glabrescent, or covered with papillae. Styles modified and persisting, or persisting but not modified.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..