Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
English: Primula, coastal primula,
French: Primevère dressée,
Primulaceae, Primrose family.
Published in Fl. Dan. 8, 24: 3, t. 1385. 1810.
Type: Norway: Tolgen and R?raas, leg. Hornemann. Holotype: C.
Vegetative morphology. Plants 5–30 cm high; perennial herbs. Only fibrous roots present. Ground level or underground stems absent. Caudex present (as a short zone from which fibrous roots arise). Aerial stems a small transition zone between taproot and basal leaves; erect (usually solitary, below the umbel). Leaves mainly basal; alternate; dying annually and non-persistent. Petioles 3–10 mm long; glabrous. Leaf blade bases truncate (sometimes petiole-like). Leaves not grass-like. Blades (6–)8–15 mm long, 3–8 mm wide, lanceolate or oblanceolate (narrowly), flat, appearing single-veined or veins pinnate (with faint reticulate venation). Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous. Blade margins entire or serrulate (very slightly), glabrous, with teeth toward the apex; apices acute, or obtuse, or rounded.
Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems solitary; without leaves (slender and stiffly erect). Flowers in inflorescences. Inflorescences with flowers in umbels; 0.8–3 cm long; 7–15 mm wide. Pedicels present. Flowers per inflorescence 2–6(–8); small. Sepals conventional; 5; fused; 4–8 mm wide; green (blackish on the tips, and as lines down the calyx); fleshy (slightly). Calyx bell-shaped, or funnel-form; 5-lobed; hairy. Calyx hairs puberulent; glandular (tiny and stiff); white or translucent. Petals conventional; fused; longer than the calyx (corolla-tube longer than the calyx); 5; purple (lilac), or yellow; with contrasting markings (colour gradation from yellow centre to lilac petal lobes); 8–10 mm long. Corolla campanulate; 5-lobed (each lobe deeply cleft). Stamens 5; fused to the corolla. Anthers yellow; 0.8–1 mm long. Ovary superior; carpels 5; syncarpous. Ovaries sub-globose; glabrous. Styles 1. Stigmas per ovary 1. Placentation free central. Fruit with calyx persisting; dry; a capsule; elongate-cylindrical; black, or brown; 3–4 mm long; 2–3 mm wide; dehiscent; splitting to the base into separate segments. Seeds 100 (numerous); 0.4–0.5 mm long; brown; surfaces verrucose.
Chromosome information. 2n = 126.
2n (14x) = 126. Bruun (1930, 1932b, northern Europe); Davies (1953); Löve and Löve (1956, Iceland, 1982a, Arctic Canada); Löve and Löve, in Vogelmann (1960, North America); Löve and Ritchie (1966, central Canada); Dalgaard (1989, western Greenland).
Ploidy levels recorded 14x.
Ecology and habitat. Substrates: seashores; imperfectly drained moist areas (silty seepage slopes); rocks (cobble beaches); with low organic content; halophytic.
North American distribution. Northwest Territories Islands, continental Northwest Territories, continental Nunavut, northern Quebec, Labrador. Range in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago limited. Rare. Low Arctic. Arctic islands: Banks (records not found at CAN), Victoria.
Northern hemisphere distribution. Amphi-Atlantic (broadly). Northern Iceland, Northern Fennoscandian, Central Canada, Labrador Hudson Bay, West Greenland, East Greenland.
General notes. Elven et al. (2003) noted that "the taxon Primula stricta belongs to an aggregate (P. anvilensis, P. borealis, P. incana, P. laurentiana, P. mistassinica, P. stricta). The relations between these species are comparatively clear, but they constitute an evident aggregate, as they have often been mistaken for each other; see Porsild and Cody (1980) [compared with Kelso] (1991b) for the Hudson-Labrador area, Hultén (1968) [compared with] Kelso (1991b) for Alaska-Yukon."
Kelso (1991b) concluded that P. stricta does not occur in Alaska. The westernmost [arctic American] location is at the Mackenzie River delta - all the (unfortunately) many reports for this species in Alaska have been based on misidentifications of other species. The only records found at CAN are two from near Holman, Victoria Island. Records from Banks Island in Porsild (1957) have not yet been found.
Illustrations. • Close-up of plant. Primula sp. showing the simple basal leaves, no leaves on the flowering stems, and umbels of flowers with central yellow tubes of five free, pink, distinctly notched petal lobes also characteristic of our arctic species. CMN Photo-Library image. • Arctic Island Distribution.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..