Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Primulaceae, Primrose family.
Published in Fl. Alaska 745. 1968.
Type: W Alaska: Kotzebue, 12.08.1932, Anderson s.n. Holotype:S.
Synonymy. Androsace chamaejasme Wulfen var. andersonii Hultén, Acta Univ. Lund., n. f., avd. 2, 44: 1281. 1968.
Androsace chamaejasme Wulfen subsp. lehmanniana auct., non (Spreng.) Hultén, Acta Univ. Lund., n.f., Avd. 2, 44, 1: 1280 p.p. 1948.
Androsace bungeana Schischk. and Bobrov, in Kom., Fl. SSSR 18: 231. 1952.
Androsace chamaejasme subsp. arctisibirica Korobkov, in Tolm. & Jurtz., Fl. Arct. URSS 8: 181. 1980.
Androsace lehmanniana subsp. arctisibirica (Korobkov) Govaerts, World Checkl. of Seed Pl. 1(1). 1995.
Vegetative morphology. Plants 2–15 cm high; perennial herbs (a contrast with A. septentrionalis). Taproot present (often obscure). Ground level or underground stems horizontal; stoloniferous; elongate, or compact; 0.4–0.6 mm wide. Horizontal stems at ground level, branching extensively to shape plant habit as mats. Caudex absent. Aerial stems a small transition zone between taproot and basal leaves; erect (usually solitary, below the inflorescence). Leaves basal in a rosette; whorled; dying annually and non-persistent. Petioles absent. Leaf blade bases truncate. Blades 2–12 mm long, 1–4 mm wide, obovate, flat, veins pinnate. Blade adaxial surface hairy, hairs villous, hairs simple, hairs moderately dense or dense, hairs white, or translucent. Blade abaxial surface hairy, hairs sparse to moderately dense, hairs white. Blade margins entire, with non-glandular hairs; apices acute, or obtuse.
Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems solitary; without leaves. Flowers solitary (rarely in some Arctic plants), or in inflorescences. Inflorescences with flowers in umbels (if applicable); 0.5–2 cm long; 5–10(–15) mm wide. Pedicels present. Flowers per inflorescence (1–)2–5; small. Sepals conventional; 5; fused; 2–3 mm wide; green. Calyx bell-shaped, or funnel-form; 5-lobed (the tubular portion of the calyx about as long as the lobes); hairy. Calyx hairs villous (with long hairs); non-glandular; white or translucent. Petals conventional; fused; longer than the calyx (corolla-tube shorter than the calyx); 5; white (creamy), or yellow (at the centre, petals turn pink with age), or pink; with contrasting markings (in the form of colour gradations); 6–9 mm long; not spurred. Corolla rotate (the throat of the corolla constricted); 5-lobed. Stamens 5; fused to the corolla. Anthers yellow; 0.7–0.9 mm long. Ovary superior; carpels 5; syncarpous. Ovaries sub-globose; glabrous. Styles 1. Stigmas per ovary 1. Placentation free central. Fruit with calyx persisting; dry; a capsule; bell-shaped; brown, or golden brown; 2–3 mm long; 2–3 mm wide; dehiscent; splitting to the base into separate segments. Seeds 10–15; 1.2–1.4 mm long; brown (pale); surfaces smooth.
Chromosome information. 2n = 20 and 30.
2n (2x) = 20. Packer (1964, northwestern Canada); Zhukova (1965a, eastern Chukotka; 1965b, Wrangel Island; 1966, 1982, northeastern Asia); Johnson and Packer (1968, northwestern Alaska); Mulligan and Porsild (1970, northwestern Canada); Krogulevich (1976a and b, southern and northern Siberia; 1978, southern and northern Siberia).
2n (3x) = 30. Zhukova (1980, southern Chukotka).
Ploidy levels recorded 2x and 3x.
Ecology and habitat. Substrates: along streams, river terraces, cliffs (and talus); dry; gravel, sand, clay; with low organic content; calcareous.
North American distribution. Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories Islands, continental Northwest Territories, Nunavut Islands, continental Nunavut. Range in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago limited. Uncommon. Low Arctic. Arctic islands: Banks, Victoria.
Northern hemisphere distribution. Amphi-Beringian, or Siberian. Polar Ural Novaya Zemlya, YamalGydan, Taimyr Severnaya Zemlya, AnabarOlenyok, Kharaulakh, YanaKolyma, West Chukotka, Wrangel Island, South Chukotka, East Chukotka, West Alaska, North Alaska Yukon, Central Canada.
General notes. Although the name subsp. 'arctisibirica' has been used for this taxon, 'andersonii' has priority at subsp. rank (Elven et al. 2005).
Illustrations. • Plants in environment. Plants less than 5 cm high growing with grasses on a sandy bank just above high tide line. Flowers are creamy with deep yellow centres when young and become pink with deep pink centres with age. N.W.T., Banks Island, Sachs Harbour. Aiken 99–072. CAN. • Close-up of plant. A very lush flowering plant growing on the arctic coast. N.W.T., Cape Bathurst. August, 1999. Photograph by R. Elven. Voucher at 0. • Plants with white flowers. Plants with small basal rosettes of leaves and predominently white flowers with a deep yellow at the throat. Note previous season's capsules that have split open. N.W.T. Cape Dalhousie. L. Gillespie 5907. 15 July, 1995. CAN 582566. • Flowering stems. Flowers borne in umbels at the top of flowering stems. Note stems are prominently hairy and scapose, that is, without leaves. N.W.T. Cape Dalhousie. L. Gillespie 5907. 15 July, 1995. CAN 582566. • Close-up of flowers. Centre flower with almost white lobes to the petals, a yellow central zone where the petals are fused, and the tips of five anthers lying opposite the petals. Older flowers are fading pink. Aiken 99–072. CAN. • Arctic Island Distribution.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..