Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Poaceae, Grass family.
Published in Bot. Not. 1898: 155. 1898.
Type: Described from Svalbard.
Synonymy. Catabrosa concinna Th.Fr., Öfvers. Svensk. Vet. Akad. Förh. 26: 140. 1869.
Phippsia algida (Sol.) R. Br. subsp. concinna (Th.Fr.) Á. Löve and D. Löve, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 10: 273. 1975.
Catabrosa concinna Th. Fr. subsp. algidiformis Harry Sm., Sv. Bot. Tidskr. 8: 245. 1914.
Phippsia algidiformis (Harry Sm.) Tzvelev (1971), Nov. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 8: 76. 1971.
Phippsia algida (Sol.) R. Br. subsp. algidiformis (Harry Sm.) Á. Löve and D. Löve, Bot. Not. 114: 49.1961.
Vegetative morphology. Plants perennial herbs; caespitose. Only fibrous roots present. Ground level or underground stems absent. Aerial stems erect. Leaves mainly basal; alternate. Prophylls 10–20 mm long; lacking pronounced keels. Petioles absent. Sheaths present; with the margins fused only in the lower part; glabrous; sheath collars present. Ligules present; 2–3 mm long; membranous; glabrous; ovate-oblong. Ligule apices obtuse; entire, or lacerate. Leaves grass-like. Blades 15–60 mm long (??), 2–4 mm wide, appressed to the stem or spreading, folded in bud, linear, veins parallel, midvein similar in size to other veins in the leaf, without bulliform cells in a distinct row on either side of the midvein. Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous.
Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems two or more per plant. Flowering stems circular or oval in cross section. Flowering stems with leaves; culm nodes not exposed. Flag leaf sheaths not inflated. Inflorescences paniculate; dense (High Arctic plants), or diffuse (spreading with branches at right angles to the rachis or reflexed: very variable in this character, but the variation has been shown to be continuous (Steen et al. (2004)); linear (High Arctic), or pyramidal. Inflorescences main axis glabrous. Number of inflorescence branches at lowest node 2–5. Inflorescence primary branches glabrous; with appressed secondary branches, or with spreading secondary branches. Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes; oblong, or lanceolate (more than 2 time longer than wide). Florets per spikelet 1. Two glumes present. First glume 0.6–0.75 × the length of the second glume; 0.2–0.25 × spikelet length; 0.3–0.6 mm long; lanceolate; glabrous; margins glabrous; veins 0; apex acute. Second glume 0.4 × as long as the spikelet or less; shorter than the lowest floret; 0.5–0.8 mm long. Second glume lanceolate. Second glume glabrous; veins 0 (but with purple colouration that suggests a vein). Lemma ovate, or lanceolate (broadly); 1.4–2 mm long; keeled (slightly: strong colouration on the veins, especially on the midvein where it extends to the apex as an awn-like line, and stiff trichomes on the base of the midvein help to suggest a keel); surface dull; surface sparsely scabrous (with long stiff trichomes on the veins), or hairy (between the veins); surface with trichomes on veins only, or on and between the veins; veins 3 (lateral veins not reaching to the apex); apex acute; apex entire; apex glabrous; awnless. Palea well developed; 1.2–1.8 mm long; veins glabrous. Flowers bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic); bisexual. Perianth represented by lodicules. Sepals modified (but not a pappus). Stamens 3. Anthers 0.5–0.9 mm long. Ovary superior; carpels 3; syncarpous. Ovaries glabrous. Styles 2. Placentation basal. Ovules per ovary 1. Fruit sessile; dry; a caryopsis; ovoid, or broadly lanceolate (caryopsis broadly ovate at the base, tapering to half that wide towards the apex); 1.2–1.9 mm long; 0.4–0.7 mm wide (narrowly ovate); indehiscent. Seeds 1.
Chromosome information. 2n (4x) = 28. Flovik (1938, Svalbard);
2n = 28 29, Flovik (1940, Svalbard); Knaben (1950, southern Norway); Bowden in Savile (1959, northern Canada); Bowden (1960a); Zhukova and Tikhonova (1971, Chukotka); Krogulevich (1976a, northern Siberia, 1984, Siberia); Engelskjøn (1979, southern Norway).
General notes. The Greenland records for P. concinna subsp. algidiformis reported from here by Bay (1993) [Nord. J. Bot. 13: 1–40] were examined in Oslo (by Elven and Aiken, May 2005), and all collections from northern Greenland were assigned to P. concinna. They are usually prostrate or erect plants, with only slightly spreading inflorescences. Similar specimens were found from Ellesmere Island at O. It was at that time concluded that P. concinna is present in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and it is included in the Flora of North America treatment (Consaul and Aiken 2007).
The name algidiformis was first used by Harry Smith (1914) for an isolated population of P. concinna plants that grow in the mountains between Sweden and Norway. His type is at UPS, with isotype in O. He later synonymised these plants under P. concinna, indicating he no longer recognised the taxon he described Tzvelev (1976/1983).
An Alaska record from Hultén (1950) is from St. Lawrence Island (a mixed collection of P. algida and P. concinna, leg. Kjellman 1879, S).
Illustrations. • Close-up of plants. Plants annotated as P. concinna, R. Elven, 2005. N. Greenland, 82°27'N, 21°25'W. Bent Fredskild. August 6, 1991. Herb. O. • Close-up of inflorescence. Note "spindle shaped " caryopses that are conspicuously longer than wide. Plants annotated as P. concinna, R. Elven 2005. N. Greenland, 80°56' N, 15°10' W. Bent Fredskild. July 29, 1993. Herb. O. • Arctic Island Distribution.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..