Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
English: Small arctic daisy.
Asteraceae (Compositae), Daisy family.
Published in In Jurtz., Fl. Arct. URSS 10: 118. 1987.
Type: Described from Canada: Northwest Territories, "On the Copper Mountains".
Synonymy. Chrysanthemum integrifolium Richardson, in Franklin, Bot. App. 33. 1823.
Leucanthemum integrifolium (Richardson) DC., Prodr. 6: 46. 1837.
Dendranthema integrifolium (Richardson) Tzvelev, in Kom., Fl. SSSR 26: 388. 1961.
Vegetative morphology. Plants (0.6–)2–10(–12) cm high; perennial herbs; caespitose. Only fibrous roots present. Ground level or underground stems horizontal, or vertical; rhizomatous, or stoloniferous; elongate, or compact; 1–3 mm wide. Caudex present (branched). Aerial stems erect. Leaves mainly basal, or distributed along the stems; erect; alternate; dying annually and non-persistent. Petioles absent. Leaf blades simple. Leaf blade bases truncate (slightly flanged and clasping at the base). Leaves grass-like. Blades 5–15(–30) mm long, 1–2 mm wide, spreading, linear, flat, appearing single-veined or with inconspicuous veins. Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous. Blade margins entire, with non-glandular hairs (very long and stiff); apices acute.
Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems solitary; with leaves. Inflorescences solitary heads. Flowering heads with disc and ray florets. Involucral bracts present. Number of rows 2–3. Outer involucral bracts with a green central portion and wide dark margins; lying adjacent to the flowers; lanceolate; (4–)5–8 mm high; 2–3 mm wide; glabrous. Inner involucral bracts obovate; 4.5–6 mm high; 2–2.5 mm wide; margins wide, scarious for at least one quarter of the bract; apex lacerate. Flowers small (disc florets, tubes about equal to the throat), or medium-sized (ray florets); radially symmetrical (actinomorphic) (disc florets), or bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic) (ray florets); unisexual (ray floret anthers sterile), or bisexual. Sepals absent. Petals conventional; fused; 5; white (ray florets), or yellow (disc florets); 2.5–3 mm long. Corolla tubular, or funnel-form (disc florets), or flat, strap-like (ray florets); unlobed (disc florets; ray florets vaguely lobed). Ray florets 11–19; limb 6–9 mm long; limb 2–4 mm wide. Stamens present, or absent; 5. Anthers yellow (disc florets); 1–1.3 mm long. Ovary inferior; carpels 2; syncarpous. Styles 1; 2.5–3 mm long. Stigmas per ovary 2 (truncate). Placentation basal. Ovules per ovary 1. Fruit sessile; dry; cypselas (five ribbed); ellipsoid (obconic); brown; 1.5–2 mm long; 0.8–1 mm wide; glabrous, or hairy; indehiscent. Seeds 1.
Chromosome information. 2n = 18.
2n (2x) = 18. Zhukova (1965a, eastern Chukotka); Johnson and Packer (1968, northwestern Alaska); Knaben (1968, central Alaska); Packer, in Löve (1968); Zhukova and Tikhonova (1971, Chukotka); Mulligan and Cody (1973, Yukon); Dignard and Gervais (2003, Nunavik).
Ploidy levels recorded 2x.
Phenology. Phenology: Flowering time: July 13 - Sept 11. Southern exposures.
Ecology and habitat. Elevation 4–150 m. Substrates: hummocks, snow patches, around the margins of ponds, along streams, tundra, dry meadows; imperfectly drained moist areas, seepage slopes, dry, moderately well-drained areas; gravel, sand, silt, clay, till, moss; with low organic content. Stony, calcareous barrens. (Porsild 1957). This arctic daisy usually occurs in well-drained areas, often on gravelly tundra or old strandlines. It seldom grows on sea beaches, or in areas exposed to salt spray (Burt, 2000).
North American distribution. Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories Islands, continental Northwest Territories, Nunavut Islands, continental Nunavut, northern Quebec. Range in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago moderate. Uncommon. Arctic, alpine. Arctic islands: Baffin, Devon, Ellesmere, Banks, Victoria, King William, Southampton (Salisbury and Vansittait islands and Boothia Peninsula).
Northern hemisphere distribution. Amphi-Beringian, or North American. East Chukotka, West Alaska, North Alaska Yukon, Central Canada, Labrador Hudson Bay, Ellesmere Land Peary Land.
General notes. This taxon was placed in the genus Chrysanthemum by Porsild (1957). The name Hulteniella for the genus is used following Yurtsev (1987) in the Flora of the Russian Arctic, and is used in the Flora of North America treatment (Brouillet 2006).
Chrysanthemums and their relatives (mainly in the genus Pyrethum) are grown (mainly in Africa) to produce pyrethrins, which are used as insecticides. Pyrethrins are chemicals produced within the plant to discourage insect feeding. They can be extracted and used in sprays and other formulations to kill insects. They are considered very "safe" insecticides because they are not long-lived and do not accumulate in the food chain Burt (2000).
Dignard and Gervais (2003) reported on H. integrifolia from the Puvirnituq and Déception rivers in Nunavik (Nouveau-Québec). They mapped the distribution of the species in the southeastern Arctic Archipelago and confirmed previous chromosome counts of 2n = 18.
Illustrations. • Habitat. Plants with daisy-like flowers, growing between the markers in dense Low Arctic tundra. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–102. CAN 586574. • Habitat. Plants less than 10 cm high, with daisy-like flowers, growing between the markers in dense low arctic tundra. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–102. CAN 586574. • Close-up of plants. Side view of plants with linear leaves and solitary heads with white ray florets and yellow disc florets. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–102. CAN 586574. • Close-up of plants. Flowering heads 1.5– 2 cm in diameter with yellow disc florets. Aiken and Iles 02–055. CAN. • Involucral bracts. Underside of flowering head showing 3 layers of involucral bracts that are mainly green but have pale brown margins. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–102. CAN 586574. • Disc florets flowering. Flowering head with one white ray floret, disc florets around the edge of the head that have forked stigmas, and in the centre disc florets that have not opened. Five dark tips on the petals indicate petal number in the disc florets. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–102. CAN 586574. • Blooming ray florets. Left, ray florets with white ray petals with three teeth. Green gynoecia with forked stigmas on top. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–102. CAN 586574. • Arctic Island Distribution.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..