Top left. Papaver dahlianum Nordh. subsp. polare (Tolm.) Elven and Nilsson. An isolated ‘old’ clump of plants growing inmoving sand on a river bank. The centre of the clump is dead, suggesting that the original plant(s) has/have died off, or been buried by moving sand, and that offspring of the colonising plant(s) have developed close to the initial establishment in the shelter that it provided. Banks Island, Aulavik National Park. Top right. Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq. A classic, compact cushion plant, growing on gravel. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. Middle left. Carex ursina Dewey. Plant growing in a clump or cushion, with fringes of small Stellaria humifusa plants around the edges in a Puccinellia phryganodes saline meadow, Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. Center. Saxifraga oppositifolia. Compact cushion-like plants in full flower, growing in Saxifraga barren. Nunavut, Ellesmere Island, Alexandra Fiord. Middle right. Silene acaulis. Underside of plant with a major taproot and many tightly packed branches that make up the cushion. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. Bottom left. Loiseleuria procumbens (L.) Desv. Close-up of a matted prostrate shrub with branches that interlace like the branches of pruned hedges. Growing in dense tundra over rocks on the west shore of Baffin Island, Frobisher Bay, at Ogac Lake. Bottom right. Parnassia kotzebuei Cham. and Schlecht. Several plants with relatively tall flowering stems, growing close together in a ‘young’ clump in sand dunes behind the beach with brackish water. Plants consist of single stems to many-stemmed clumps 10–16 cm tall. N.W.T., Cape Dalhousie.