Wetlands are found in both freshwater and marine habitats.
Freshwater wetlands include marshes, swamps, peatlands and shallow waters.
Another important area found in some wetlands are prairie potholes. Prairie potholes are a type of shallow-water wetland. In Canada, they occur in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta.
They are often called "duck factories" because they are important feeding and resting stops for half of the migratory birds of North America, flying between their summer and winter homes.
Wetlands also include the shorelines of the world's oceans.
Important examples are
- deltas, where rivers empty into the ocean
- mud flats, where ocean tides cover and drain the beach daily
- saltwater marshes, where ocean water floods the area near the beach.
In Canada, marine wetlands are found along the Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific coasts.
Marine wetlands in southern Hudson Bay, James Bay and the Bay of Fundy are important feeding and breeding grounds for many shorebirds.
Wetland Monitoring at the Museum
The Canadian Museum of Nature owns a wetland, on the property where the museum has its science and administration building. Taking advantage of the expertise of its staff, the museum is studying the species that live there.
Several species that are rare in the region are found there. They include New England aster, chestnut sedge, Clinton's wood fern, Dowell's woodfern, rough avens, field rush and clasping twistedstalk.
A crane-fly species was found there that was previously unknown to science.