Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Salix glauca L. subsp. stipulifera (Flod. ex Hayren) Hiitonen

Salicaceae, Willow family.

Published in Suomen kasvio 272. 1933.

Synonymy. Salix stipulifera Flor. ex Hayren, Mem. Soc. Faum. Fl. Fen. 5: 133. 1929.

Vegetative morphology. Plants 25–100 cm high; shrubs; low shrubs, or mid shrubs; not colonial. Aerial stems erect, or decumbent. Branches grey-brown, or red-brown (or obscured by indumentum); hairy; hairs villous. Branchlets obscured by indumentum; not glaucous; hairy; villous. Branchlet hairs moderately dense, or very dense; spreading (straight or wavy). Buds arctica-type. Leaves present; distributed along the stems; alternate; dying annually and non-persistent, or marcescent. Stipules present; on first leaves foliaceous; on leaves formed later in the season foliaceous; deciduous in autumn, or persisting for 2 or more years; green; apex acuminate, or acute. Petioles 1–9 mm long; shallowly concave in cross section, or deeply concave in cross section; hairy; villous. Juvenile leaves yellowish green; hairy; abaxial surfaces villous, or hairs long-silky; abaxial hairs very dense; abaxial hairs white. Leaf blade bases obtuse, or cuneate, or rounded (slightly decurrent). Blades 27–74 mm long, length-width ratio 2.1–3.9, 8–24 mm wide, oblong (narrowly) or elliptic (narrowly) or oblanceolate or obovate. Blade adaxial surface shiny, glabrous or glabrescent or hairy, hairs villous or long-silky, hairs sparse or moderately dense, hairs white, or translucent. Blade abaxial surface glaucous, hairy, hairs villous or long-silky, hairs moderately dense or very dense, hairs white, hairs straight or wavy, hairs appressed or spreading. Blade margins flat or slightly revolute. Blade margins entire and glandular-dotted; apices acuminate, or acute, or obtuse.

Reproductive morphology. Plants dioecious. Inflorescences catkins. Pedicels absent. Catkins arising from lateral buds; flowering as leaves emerge. Male catkins 14–26 mm long; 8–14 mm wide; stout; peduncles 2–7 mm long; borne on a flowering branchlet; flowering branchlets 1–14 mm long. Female catkins 15–54 mm long; 7–15 mm wide; stout, or sub-globose; peduncles 2–11 mm long; borne on a flowering branchlet; flowering branchlets 2–19 mm long. Floral bracts tawny, or brown, or bicolour; 1.2–2.2 mm long; hairy all over; hairs sparse; hairs straight, or wavy (crinkled); apices rounded, or convex; apices entire. Flowers unisexual. Sepals absent. Petals absent. Stamens 2; stamen filaments glabrous, or hairy on lower half, or hairy at base only. Anthers purple becoming yellow, or reddish, becoming yellow; ellipsoid, or short-cylindrical; 0.48–0.76 mm long. Male flowers abaxial nectaries absent, or present. Male flowers adaxial nectaries narrowly oblong, or oblong, or square, or ovate, or flask-shaped; 0.6–1.5 mm long. Female flowers abaxial nectaries absent. Female flowers adaxial nectaries narrowly oblong, or oblong, or flask-shaped; 0.4–1.8 mm long; shorter than stipes, or equal to stipes, or longer than stipes. Ovary carpels 2. Stipes 0.4–1.8 mm long. Ovaries inverse club-shaped, or pear-shaped; abruptly tapering to style; hairy; villous, or tomentose. Ovary hairs very dense; white; spreading; straight, or wavy; flattened, or cylindrical. Styles 0.4–1 mm long. Stigma lobes 0.3–0.8 mm long. Ovules per ovary 10–20. Fruit a capsule; 4.5–7.5 mm long; hairy.

Chromosome information. 2n = 76, 114, and 152.

2n (4x) = Johnson and Packer (1968, Alaska); Suda and Argus (1969, Alaska); Zhukova and Petrovsky (1975, 1980, western Chukotka); Zhukova and Tikhonova (1973, Chukotka); 2n (6x) = 114. Petrovsky and Zhukova (1983b, northeastern Asia); Zhukova et al. (1977, northeastern Asia); Zhukova and Petrovsky (1972, northeastern Asia); Zhukova and Petrovsky (1980, northeastern Asia); 2n (8x) = 152. Zhukova and Petrovsky (1976, 1977, northeastern Asia).

Ploidy levels recorded 4x, 6x and 8x.

Phenology. Phenology: 13 June - 17 July.

North American distribution. Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories Islands, continental Northwest Territories, Nunavut Islands. Range in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago limited. Uncommon. Arctic islands: Banks, Victoria.

Northern hemisphere distribution. Amphi-Beringian.

General notes. This taxon was treated as S. glauca var. glauca (Argus 1973). The voucher specimen (Thannheiser, personal herbarium) on which the report of S. glauca subsp. callicarpaea from Victoria Island was based was identified by Argus as S. glauca subsp. stipulifera.

Illustrations. • Habit. Plant an erect shrub forming low thickets. N.W.T., Kitigazuit. August, 1997. Laurie Consaul 1158 and Lynn Gillespie. CAN. • Habitat. Plant an erect shrub forming low thickets. N.W.T., Kitigazuit. 17 August, 1997. Photograph by Laurie Consaul. • Close-up of plant. Close-up of catkins borne on flowering plants. N.W.T., Kitigazuit. August, 1997. Laurie Consaul 1158 and Lynn Gillespie. CAN. • Close-up of two female catkins. Close-up of two female catkins. N.W.T., Kitigazuit. Laurie Consaul 1158 and Lynn Gillespie. CAN. • Close-up of female catkin. Close-up of female catkin. Note the ovary gradually tapers to the style. N.W.T., Kitigazuit. Laurie Consaul 1158 and Lynn Gillespie. CAN. • Arctic Island Distribution.


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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