Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Salix glauca L. subsp. callicarpaea (Trautv.) Böcher

English: Beautiful willow,

French: Saule à beaux fruits,

Inuktitut: Uqaujaq (Nunavik).

Salicaceae, Willow family.

Published in Meddel. Grønl. 147: 19. 1952.

Synonymy. Salix glauca L. var. callicarpaea (Trautv.) Argus, Syst. Bot. Monogr. 52: 70. 1997.

Salix callicarpaea Trautv. (1832), Nouv. Mem. Soc. Naturalistes Moscou 2: 295. 1832.

Salix cordifolia Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 611. 1814.

Salix cordifolia var. calllicarpaea f. tonsa (Fernald) Polunin, Bull. Natl. Mus. Canada 94 (Biol. Ser. 24): 165. 1940.

Salix anamesa Schneider, Bot. Gaz. 66: 348. 1918.

Salix atra Rydberg, Bull. N.Y. Bot. Garden 1: 272.

Salix callicarpaea Trautv. Nouv. Mem. Soc. Moscow, 2: 295. 1832.

Salix cordifolia Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2. 615.

Salix cordifolia Pursh subsp. callicarpaea (Trautv.) A. Löve, Bot. Not. 1950: 38. 1950.

Salix cordifolia Pursh var. callicarpaea (Trautv.) Fernald, Rhodora 28: 184. 1926.

Salix cordifolia Pursh var. eucycla Fernald, Rhodora 28: 187. 1926.

Salix cordifolia Pursh var. intonsa Fernald, Rhodora 28: 185. 1926.

Salix cordifolia Pursh var. macounii (Rydberg) C. K. Schneider, Bot. Gaz. 66: 347. 1918.

Salix cordifolia Pursh var. tonsa Fernald, Rhodora 28: 187. 1926.

Salix glauca L. var. macounii (Rydberg) B. Boivin, Nat. canad. 93: 437.1966.

Salix glauca L. var. stenolepis Polunin, Bull. Natl. Mus. Canada 92:163. 1940.

Salix labradorica Rydberg, Bull. N.Y. Bot. Garden 1: 274.

Salix macounii Rydberg, Bull. N.Y. Bot. Garden 1: 269.

Salix rydbergii A. Heller, Cat. N. Amer. Pl., ed 2, 4. 1900.

Salix vacciniformis Rydberg, In Britton Man. Fl. N. U.S. 319.

Vegetative morphology. Plants 20–250 cm high; shrubs; low shrubs, or mid shrubs, or tall shrubs; not colonial. Aerial stems erect, or decumbent. Branches yellow-brown, or red-brown; not glaucous; glabrous, or hairy, or glabrescent; hairs villous. Branchlets red-brown; not glaucous; glabrous, or hairy, or glabrescent; pilose, or villous, or tomentose. Branchlet hairs sparse, or moderately dense, or very dense; spreading. Buds arctica-type. Leaves present; distributed along the stems; alternate; dying annually and non-persistent, or marcescent. Stipules present; on first leaves rudimentary, or foliaceous; on leaves formed later in the season rudimentary, or foliaceous; early deciduous, or deciduous in autumn; green, or colourless; apex acute, or acuminate. Petioles 2–9 mm long; deeply concave in cross section; hairy; pilose. Juvenile leaves yellowish green; hairy; abaxial surfaces villous, or tomentose; abaxial hairs sparse, or moderately dense, or very dense; abaxial hairs white. Leaf blade bases cuneate, or obtuse, or rounded. Blades 17–63 mm long, length-width ratio 1.4–3.5, 6–28 mm wide, elliptic (to broadly elliptic) or oblanceolate or obovate (to broadly obovate). Blade adaxial surface dull or shiny, glabrous or hairy or glabrescent, hairs pilose or villous, hairs sparse, hairs white, or translucent. Blade abaxial surface glaucous, glabrous or glabrescent or hairy, hairs pilose or villous or long-silky (rarely tomentose), hairs sparse or moderately dense, hairs white, hairs straight or wavy, hairs spreading. Blade margins slightly revolute or flat. Blade margins entire and glandular-dotted (or not glandular-dotted, rarely serrulate), with teeth per cm 1–14; apices acuminate, or acute, or obtuse, or rounded.

Reproductive morphology. Plants dioecious. Inflorescences catkins. Pedicels absent. Catkins flowering as leaves emerge. Male catkins 15–33 mm long; 5–14 mm wide; slender, or stout, or sub-globose, or globose; peduncles 1–14 mm long; borne on a flowering branchlet; flowering branchlets 2–25 mm long. Female catkins 20–55 mm long; 7–21 mm wide; slender, or stout, or sub-globose, or globose; peduncles 2–15 mm long; borne on a flowering branchlet; flowering branchlets 2–26 mm long. Floral bracts tawny, or brown, or bicolour; 2–3 mm long; hairy all over; hairs sparse, or moderately dense; hairs wavy, or straight; apices rounded; apices entire. Flowers unisexual. Sepals absent. Petals absent. Stamens 2; stamen filaments glabrous, or hairy at base only, or hairy on lower half. Anthers purple, or purple becoming yellow; ellipsoid, or short-cylindrical; 0.5–0.8 mm long. Male flowers abaxial nectaries present. Male flowers adaxial nectaries narrowly oblong, or oblong, or ovate, or flask-shaped; 0.5–1.3 mm long; nectaries distinct. Female flowers abaxial nectaries absent. Female flowers adaxial nectaries narrowly oblong, or oblong; 0.4–1.4 mm long; shorter than stipes, or equal to stipes, or longer than stipes. Ovary carpels 2. Stipes 0.3–1.3 mm long. Ovaries pear-shaped; gradually tapering to style; hairy; villous, or tomentose. Ovary hairs very dense, or moderately dense; white; spreading, or appressed; wavy, or crinkled; flattened (sometimes refractive). Styles 0.7–1.6 mm long. Stigma lobes 0.36–0.48–0.72 mm long. Ovules per ovary 10–18. Fruit a capsule; 6–7.5 mm long; hairy.

Ecology and habitat. A low shrub of protected habitats. Often prostrate on ground or rising espalier-like on the south-facing slope of a boulder. Typically growing on sand and cobbles among granitic boulders, on sandy alluvium, or on exposed eskers. Sometimes on scree slopes, in sphagnum bogs, empetrum heaths, or in snowbeds.

North American distribution. Continental Northwest Territories, Nunavut Islands, continental Nunavut, northern Quebec, Labrador. Arctic islands: Baffin.

Northern hemisphere distribution. North American (eastern and Atlantic). Central Canada, Labrador – Hudson Bay, West Greenland, East Greenland.

General notes. Salix glauca subsp. callicarpaea is an erect shrub; its leaves are glaucous and sparsely to moderately densely hairy abaxially and sparsely hairy to glabrate adaxially; stipules often present but not prominent, usually 0–4 mm long; catkins densely flowered and borne on leafy flowering branchlets; floral bracts pale or dark brown and ovaries densely hairy.

The taxonomy of S. glauca in the Arctic islands and on Greenland has been confusing. Böcher (1952) noted two ecologically and morphologically different types of Salix glauca occurring in West Greenland. A smooth one corresponding to S. cordifolia var. callicarpaea and an hirsute one corresponding to S. cordifolia var. intonsa. Argus (1965) proposed that all Greenland material belonged to S. glauca subsp. callicarpaea (as the Eastern Phase of S. glauca). Böcher later recognised them as two subspecies, S. glauca subsp. callicarpaea (including var. intonsa) and S. glauca subsp. glauca, which he thought resembled the European S. glauca (Böcher et al. 1968). Skvortsov (1971) agreed with Argus that European S. glauca subsp. glauca did not occur on Greenland. He pointed out that it differed in the following characters: generally shorter, broader, more obtuse leaves; adaxial leaf surface bare and even somewhat shiny; flowering branchlets as long as the catkins themselves (European plants are usually shorter); bracts often brownish; stamens with glabrous filaments (more common than in European plants); and a more spreading growth form.

Subspecies callicarpaea extends across Canada, south to northern Saskatchewan and Manitoba, and east to Newfoundland and Greenland. All specimens of subsp. callicarpaea reported from Iceland, the Faeroes, and Svalbard are S. arctica (Pálsson, in Jonsell 2000).

Hybrids

Salix arctica × S. glauca subsp. callicarpaea (S. ×waghornei Rydb.) (Argus 1965, 1973, 2003, Bay 1992, Skvortsov 1971). In 1965 Argus wrote, ‘This hybrid is characterised by various combinations of the characteristics of S. arctica and S. glauca. The S. glauca characteristics include erect habit, leaves less oblanceolate and without the attenuate base of S. arctica, shorter petioles, bracts light-colored with shorter wavy trichomes [hairs], and a divided style. The S. arctica characteristics include prostrate habit, pruinose [glaucous] stems and buds, sparse branchlet-pubescence, dark-colored bracts with long, straight trichomes, leaves with long straight trichomes on the lower [abaxial] surface projecting in a ‘beard’ at the apex, capsules reddish with long stigmas, and dark colored anthers.’ Specimens identified as hybrids combine these characters in various ways. On Baffin Island, the hybrid is difficult to recognise because S. glauca and S. arctica are so convergent in their morphology that the recognition of intermediates is difficult.

Salix arctophila × S. glauca subsp. callicarpaea. This hybrid is reported to be common in East Greenland but absent from West Greenland (Böcher 1952). It is not known to occur in Canada.

Illustrations. • Habitat, female plant growing over rock: Baffin Island , Ogac Lake. Foreground plant growing over the rock with female catkins coming into flower on the colder side of the rock and catkins setting seed on the exposed top of the rock. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Ogac Lake. 9 July, 2004. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–036. CAN. • Habitat, male plant growing nearby: Baffin Island, Ogac Lake. Male plant growing near the preceding female plant. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Ogac Lake. 9 July, 2004. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–037. CAN. • Close-up of male branches. Portion of the male plant showing post-anthesis catkins. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Ogac Lake. 9 July, 2004. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–037. CAN. • Habitat. Plant an erect shrub among boulders. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. August, 1997. Aiken and Cheryl McJannet 97042. CAN. • Habit. Plant an erect shrub with glaucous abaxial leaf surfaces and shiny adaxial leaf surfaces. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. August, 1997. Aiken and Cheryl McJannet 97042. CAN. • Habit. Plant an erect shrub with glaucous abaxial leaf surfaces and shiny adaxial leaf surfaces. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. August, 1997. Aiken and Cheryl McJannet 97010. CAN. • Habitat. Plant an erect shrub growing on a slope. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. August, 1997. • Close-up of catkin and leaves. Catkins densely flowered with leaf buds opening. Leaves elliptic or oblanceolate with glaucous abaxial surfaces and shiny or glabrescent leaf surfaces. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. August, 1997. Aiken and Cheryl McJannet 97010. CAN. • Close-up of young female catkin. Female catkins with pear-shaped ovaries gradually tapering to style with red stigmas and covered with dense villous, or tomentose hairs that are spreading, wavy, or crinkled. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–036. CAN. • Close-up of female catkin. Female catkins with pear-shaped ovaries gradually tapering to style with the brown remains of stigmas, and covered with dense villous, or tomentose hairs that are appressed at this stage of development. Aiken and LeBlanc 04–036. CAN. • Close-up of female catkin. Close-up of female catkin, densely flowered and borne on a flowering branchlet. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. August, 1997. Aiken and Cheryl McJannet 97010. CAN. • Close-up of female catkin and leaves. Catkin densely flowered and borne on a flowering branchlet. Note ovaries are pear-shaped and gradually taper to the style. Leaves elliptic-oblanceolate with glaucous abaxial surfaces and shiny or glabrescent leaf surfaces. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. August, 1997. Aiken and Chery McJannet 97010. CAN. • Arctic Island Distribution.


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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