Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Salix fuscescens Andersson

English: Alaska bog willow.

Salicaceae, Willow family.

Published in Kongl. Svenska Vetenskapsakad. Handl. Stockh. n.s. 6, 1: 97. 1867.

Type: Russian Far East: Kamchatka, leg. Beechey, Lectotype: K, selected by Dorn (1994).

Synonymy. Salix arbutifolia auctt. non Pall.

Salix fuscescens var. reducta C.R. Ball

Vegetative morphology. Plants 15–55 cm high; shrubs; low shrubs; forming colonies by layering; not glandular viscid. Aerial stems decumbent, or prostrate. Branches yellow-brown; not glaucous; glabrous. Branchlets yellow-brown, or grey-brown, or red-brown; not glaucous; glabrous. Buds arctica-type. Leaves present; distributed along the stems; alternate; dying annually and non-persistent. Stipules present; to be recorded. Petioles present; 2–5.6(–6.4) mm long; deeply concave in cross section; glabrous. Juvenile leaves yellowish green; glabrous. Leaf blade bases cuneate, or obtuse (slightly decurrent). Blades 14–37(–45) mm long, length-width ratio 1.4–2.5, 7–21 mm wide, oblong (to narrowly so) or obovate (to broadly so). Blade adaxial surface shiny or highly glossy, glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glaucous, glabrous. Blade margins slightly revolute or flat. Blade margins entire or serrulate or crenate (crenulate) or glandular-dotted, with teeth all around the blade or toward the base, with teeth per cm 3–7; apices acuminate, or obtuse, or rounded.

Reproductive morphology. Plants dioecious. Inflorescences catkins. Pedicels absent. Catkins flowering as leaves emerge. Male catkins 8–58 mm long; 5–19 mm wide; stout, or sub-globose; peduncles 0.5–13 mm long; borne on a flowering branchlet; flowering branchlets 0.5–15 mm long. Female catkins 11–44 mm long; 6.5–15 mm wide; slender, or stout, or sub-globose; peduncles 2.5–15 mm long; borne on a flowering branchlet; flowering branchlets 4–18 mm long. Floral bracts brown, or bicolour; 0.8–1.6 mm long; hairy all over; hairs sparse; hairs straight, or wavy; apices rounded; apices entire. Flowers unisexual. Sepals absent. Petals absent. Stamens 2; stamen filaments glabrous. Anthers purple, or purple becoming yellow; ellipsoid, or short-cylindrical; 0.3–0.4 mm long. Male flowers abaxial nectaries absent. Male flowers adaxial nectaries oblong; 0.5–0.83 mm long. Female flowers abaxial nectaries absent. Female flowers adaxial nectaries oblong; 0.4–0.88 mm long; shorter than stipes. Ovary carpels 2. Stipes 0.8–2.5 mm long. Ovaries inverse club-shaped (often dark reddish brown); abruptly tapering to style; hairy; pubescent, or short-silky. Ovary hairs sparse, or moderately dense; white, or white and rust-coloured; appressed; straight, or wavy; ribbon-like, or flattened. Styles 0.1–0.4(–0.65) mm long. Stigma lobes 0.24–0.68 mm long. Ovules per ovary 8–12. Fruit a capsule; 5.5–8 mm long; hairy.

Chromosome information. 2n = 38.

2n (2x) = 38. Zhukova (1967, northeastern Asia); Johnson and Packer (1968, northwestern Alaska, as S. arbutifolia); Suda and Argus (1969, Alaska); Zhukova and Petrovsky (1976, northeastern Asia); Petrovsky and Zhukova (1983a, northeastern Asia).

Ploidy levels recorded 2x.

Ecology and habitat. Elevation 55–1006 m. A low shrub, growing in moss in bogs, treed bogs, sedge fens, poorly drained lake shores, and wet tundra, on a substrate of silt or fine sandy-gravel.

North American distribution. Alaska, Yukon, continental Northwest Territories, Nunavut Islands, continental Nunavut. Arctic islands: Victoria.

Northern hemisphere distribution. Amphi-Beringian (broadly). Taimyr – Severnaya Zemlya (?), Anabar–Olenyok, Kharaulakh, Yana–Kolyma, West Chukotka, South Chukotka, East Chukotka, West Alaska, North Alaska – Yukon, Central Canada, Labrador – Hudson Bay.

General notes. Salix fuscescens is known in the Arctic islands only on Victoria Island, where it was collected at Long Lake by J.D.H. Lambert on 14 July 1964 (CAN 52349).


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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