Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Pedicularis arctoeuropaea (Hultén) Molau and D.F. Murray

Scrophulariaceae, Fernweed family.

Published in Symb. Bot. Upsal. 31, 3: 38. 1996.

Type: Northwestern European Russia: Murman area, Triostrova, 20.07.1927, leg. E. Hultén. Holotype. S.

Synonymy. Pedicularis sudetica Willd. subsp. arctoeuropaea Hultén, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 55: 202. 1961.

Pedicularis sudetica subsp.interioroides var. villosula Ivanina and Jurtz., Arctic Fl. Ussr 8: 315. 1980.

Vegetative morphology. Plants (4–)10–13(–190) cm high; perennial herbs; caespitose. Taproot present, or only fibrous roots present (fusiform roots arise from the caudex). Ground level or underground stems horizontal, or absent; rhizomatous (short, stout, ascending); compact. Caudex present (surrounded by leaf bases). Aerial stems erect. Aerial stem trichomes present; spreading, or erect (tangled). Leaves heterophyllous (bract leaves or cauline leaf if present, distinct), or not heterophyllous; mainly basal; alternate; dying annually and non-persistent. Petioles present; 10–15(–20) mm long (0.5–1.2 times the length of the blade); glabrous. Leaf blades simple (pinnately divided). Leaf blade bases truncate (basal leaf divisions more or less erect). Leaves not grass-like. Blades 10–20(–25) mm long (petiole + blade, 23–70 to 140 mm long, for circumpolar plants), 4–8(–10) mm wide, spreading, lanceolate, flat, veins pinnate. Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous. Blades cut into linear divisions (the divisions often relatively short and not always at right angles to the midrib). Blade margins crenate or dentate (on the margins of the linear divisions), glabrous; apices acute.

Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems circular or oval in cross section. Flowering stems without leaves (or less often with a single leaf (10–60 mm long) in the distal third close to the inflorescence, flowering stems thick and stout). Flowering stems glabrous, or hairy (near the inflorescence). Flowering stems pilose. Flowering stem hairs white or translucent, or yellow (inflorescence usually yellowish white lanate, rarely glabrous); glandular hairs absent. Inflorescences spicate and head-like (normally densely yellowish white lanate, but entirely glabrous specimens occur in Alaska); terminal; dense; globose or sub-globose (in bud), or oblong (in flower); elongating as the fruit matures. Pedicels present, or absent (inconspicuous among the dense hairs of the inflorescence). Floral bracts apices dilate (a difficult character in pressed material). Flowers per inflorescence (2–)10–30; medium-sized; bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic). Sepals conventional; 5; fused; 8–12 mm wide; green. Calyx tubular (the lobes subequal, the dorsal lobes about 70% the length of the lateral lobes; lateral lobes narrowly laciniate and crenulate at the apex); 5-lobed; hairy. Calyx hairs white or translucent. Petals conventional; fused; 5; purple (magenta throughout, the helmet only slightly darker at the apex); with contrasting markings (in the form of few to many purple spots on the lip petals); 16–21 mm long. Corolla bilabiate; 2-lobed (helmet), or 3-lobed (lip or landing petal); helmet not prolonged into a long beak (not strongly recurved, the apex cut at a 45–70° angle); helmet with 2 small teeth at the apex (teeth 0.3–0.7 mm long). Stamens 4; fused to the corolla. Anthers 1.7–2.8 mm long. Ovary superior; carpels 2; syncarpous. Styles 1 (strongly recurved, its total curving angle from the base (120–160°)); straight. Stigmas per ovary 1. Placentation axile. Ovules per ovary 27–89. Fruit sessile (sub-sessile); with calyx persisting; dry; a capsule; ovoid (with a long beak); black, or brown; 10–15 mm long; dehiscent; opening at the apex and partially or fully down one side. Seeds 27–89; 1.3–2.8 mm long; surfaces smooth (but papery, loose-fitting outer testa with quadrangular cells, which lose their outer wall at maturity).

Chromosome information. 2n = 16.

(2n) (2x) = 16. Sokolovskaya and Strelkova (1960, Kolguev); Sokolovskaya (1970, northeastern Russia).

Ploidy levels recorded 2x.

North American distribution. Molau and Murray (1996) noted that this species is most common on mesic tundra with alluvial soils as on floodplans and terraces. Low Arctic.

General notes. Molau and Murray (1996) noted that this species has been considered an endemic of the western Russian Arctic, however, they considered the species extends from northernmost Siberia and the Russian Far East eastward across Alaska, to Sachs Harbour on Banks Island and Cape Bathurst on the mainland in western Arctic Canada, not much beyond the western extent of the Laurentide Ice sheet of Wisonsinan time; that is, its distribution in North America is barely beyond the boundary of the Eastern Beringian refugium. These authors stated that characteristically each plant gives rise to several bow-shaped shoots, thus this habit and the yellowish white lanate, capitate inflorescence generally distinguish this species in the field from its morphological relatives.

Illustrations. • Habitat. Plants growing among graminoids and horsetails in a saline wet meadow. N.W.T., Banks Island, Sachs Harbour. 24 July, 1981. J.M. Gillett 18808. CAN. • Close-up of plant. Plants with basal leaves and one or two leaves on the flowering stems. Flowers with purple-pink helmet petals that have dark spots where the pre-anthesis anthers appear through the translucent upper petals. J.M. Gillett 18808. CAN. • Arctic Island Distribution.


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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