Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
Scrophulariaceae, Fernweed family.
Published in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 15: 229. 1979
Type: Canada: Nunavut: Victoria Island, Cambridge Bay, 12.08.1959, leg. E. Hultén. Holotype. S.
Synonymy. Pedicularis sudetica Willd. subsp. albolabiata Hultén, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 55: 203. 1961.
Pedicularis sudetica var. bicolor Walpers, Rep. Syst. 3L 441. 1844.
Pedicularis sudetica subsp. novaiae-zemliae Hultén, Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 55: 202. 1961.
Pedicularis novaiae-zemliae (Hultén) Kozheven., in Kozheven. and Tikhemenev, Bot. Zhur. 63: 1440. 1978.
Pedicularis pseudoscopulorum Kozhevn and Tikmenev, Bot. Zhur. 63: 1440. 1978.
Vegetative morphology. Plants (7–)10–20(–30) cm high; perennial herbs; characteristically each plant gives rise to several bow-shaped shoots. Only fibrous roots present (fusiform roots arising from the caudex). Ground level or underground stems horizontal, or absent; rhizomatous (short, stout, ascending); compact. Caudex present (surrounded by leaf bases). Aerial stems ascending (characteristically curving upwards from the lower portion of the flowering stem at 45° to the ground). Aerial stem trichomes present; spreading, or erect (if applicable). Leaves heterophyllous (bract leaves, or cauline leaf if present, distinct from the basal leaves), or not heterophyllous; mainly basal; alternate; dying annually and non-persistent. Petioles present; 20–40(–50) mm long (1.2–3 times the length of the blade); not winged; glabrous. Leaf blades simple (pinnately divided). Leaf blade bases truncate (basal leaf divisions erect). Blades (10–)20–50(–70) mm long (petiole + blade 40–200 mm long for circumpolar plants), 5–15(–25) mm wide, spreading, lanceolate, flat, veins pinnate. Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous. Blades cut into linear divisions (divisions often relatively long and at right angles to the main vein). Blade margins crenate or dentate (on the margins of the linear divisions), glabrous; apices acute.
Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems circular or oval in cross section. Flowering stems without leaves (or often with a single leaf (12–62 mm long) borne in the distal third close to the inflorescence, flowering stems thick and stout). Flowering stems glabrous, or hairy (near the inflorescence). Flowering stems pilose. Flowering stem hairs white or translucent (inflorescence almost glabrous to white lanate); glandular hairs absent. Inflorescences spicate and head-like (almost glabrous to white-lanate); terminal; dense; globose or sub-globose (in bud), or oblong (in flower); elongating as the fruit matures. Pedicels present, or absent (or inconspicuous among the dense hairs of the inflorescence). Floral bracts 8–46 mm long (lowermost bract, dilate at the base, with finger-like projections); apices dilate (a difficult character in pressed material). Flowers per inflorescence (7–)12–30; medium-sized; bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic). Sepals conventional; 5; fused; (7–)9–11(–12) mm wide; green, or purple (a light green, purple-spotted or striped). Calyx tubular (the lobes subequal, the dorsal lobe about 75% the length of the lateral lobes; the lateral lobes narrowly laciniate and crenulate at the apex); 5-lobed; hairy. Calyx hairs white or translucent. Petals conventional; fused; 5; purple (helmet), or white, or pink (the lip much paler than the appressed helmet, that is, dark purple at the tip and conspicuously paler below, i.e., bicoloured); with contrasting markings (in the form of few to many purple spots on the lip petals); 16–20 mm long. Corolla bilabiate; 2-lobed (helmet), or 3-lobed (lip or landing petal); helmet not prolonged into a long beak (but strongly recurved and appressed to the lip, its apex cut at an 60–100° angle); helmet with 2 small teeth at the apex (0.3–0.6(-0.9) mm long). Stamens 4; fused to the corolla. Anthers 1.5–2.8 mm long. Ovary superior; carpels 2; syncarpous. Styles 1 (strongly recurved, the total curving angle from the base (120-)135–190°); straight. Stigmas per ovary 1. Placentation axile. Ovules per ovary 13–48. Fruit sessile (sub-sessile); with calyx persisting; dry; a capsule; ovoid (with a long beak); black, or brown; (8–)11–18 mm long; 4–6 mm wide; dehiscent; opening at the apex and partially or fully down one side. Seeds 13–48; 1–3(–5) mm long; surfaces smooth (but papery, loose-fitting outer testa with quadrangular cells, which lose their outer wall at maturity).
Chromosome information. 2n = 16.
(2n) (2x) = 16. Mosquin and Hayley (1966, Melville Island); Hedberg (1967, Victoria Island); Mulligan (1969, Alaska); Suda and Argus (1969, northern Alaska); Zhukova and Petrovsky (1971 Wrangel Island; 1975, western Chukotka).
Löve and Löve (1975) assigned the following additional chromosome counts to this entity, but vouchers must be checked before they are accepted: Zhukova et al. (1973, Taimyr and northeastern Asia); Packer and McPherson (1974, northern Alaska, Barrow).
Ploidy levels recorded 2x.
North American distribution. Molau and Murray (1996) noted that this species favours wet tundra habitats, often those with some ponded water early in the season. Arctic.
General notes. Molau and Murray (1996) noted that this species is found in a broad band across the Arctic from European Russia to Thule, Greenland (Bay 1993). It is an Arctic species for most of its range, but it also occurs within taiga in alpine sites as in the mountains of central Alaska. Typical forms with their sharply contrasting purple helmet and pure white corolla lip are immediately distinguishable from all other species.
Illustrations. • Habitat. Plants, between the markers, growing in saline meadow near high tide line. Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour. July, 2001. Aiken and Brysting 10–072. CAN. • Surface view of inflorescence. From above, the flowers appear to spiral up the inflorescence. Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour. July, 2001. Aiken and Brysting 10–072. CAN. • Close-up of plants in habitat. Flowering inflorescences, 10–12 cm high. Note the slight colour contrast between the helmet and the landing petals. Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour. July, 2001. Aiken and Brysting 01–072. CAN. Scale bar in cm. • Close-up of flowers. The arched reddish purple helmet petals have two small teeth at the apex. These lower petals are pinker than the flowers in the previous picture and have fewer dark markings on them. Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour. July, 2001. Aiken and Brysting 01–072 CAN. • Close-up of leaves. Plant with a procumbent inflorescence becoming erect as the flowers begin to bloom. Note the pinnately divided, fern-like leaves that have relatively long and dentate leaf divisions. L. Gillespie 6135. CAN. • Close-up of plant. Flowers with dark reddish helmet petals that are shorter than the lower petals which are pale pink and have conspicuous reddish purple spots. L. Gillespie 6135. CAN. • Arctic Island Distribution.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..