Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
English: Rose family,
Rosaceae, Rose family.
Vegetative morphology. Plants 1.5–40 cm high (in Arctic islands); herbs, or shrubs; perennial herbs (if applicable); dwarf shrubs; caespitose, or not caespitose. Taproot present, or only fibrous roots present. Ground level or underground stems horizontal, or vertical; rhizomatous, or stoloniferous; elongate; 1–20 mm wide. Caudex present, or absent. Aerial stems a small transition zone between taproot and basal leaves, or branching from a tap at or near ground level into two or more branches, or developed; erect, or ascending, or decumbent, or prostrate; filiform, or not filiform (usually). Leaves mainly basal, or distributed along the stems, or basal in a rosette (rarely); alternate; dying annually and non-persistent, or marcescent. Stipules present (usually); (2–)4–14(–25) mm long; (0.5–)2.5–3.5(–6) mm wide; sheathing, or not sheathing; brown, or green, or pink or reddish; glabrous, or hairy; pilose, or villous, or short-silky, or long-silky; glandular, or without glands; apex acuminate, or acute, or obtuse, or rounded. Petioles 1–40(–100) mm long; with sessile glands, or without sessile glands; glabrous, or hairy, or glabrescent; pubescent, or pilose, or villous, or woolly, or short-silky, or long-silky. Petiole hairs shorter than the diameter of the petiole, or longer than the diameter of the petiole; appressed, or spreading, or erect, or reflexed; straight, or floccose, or curved, or wavy, or crispate; smooth, or rough. Leaf blades simple, or compound. Leaf blade bases cordate, or truncate. Blades 4–50 mm long, 3–35(–110) mm wide, linear or oblong or circular or lanceolate or reniform, flat or revolute (if applicable), veins pinnate or veins palmate. Blade adaxial surface glabrous or glabrescent or hairy, hairs pilose or villous or long-silky, hairs simple, hairs sparse or moderately dense or dense, hairs white, or translucent. Blade abaxial surface dull, glaucous or not glaucous, with sessile glands or without sessile glands or glandular hairs, glabrous or glabrescent or hairy, hairs pilose or tomentose or woolly or short-silky or long-silky, hairs sparse or moderately dense or very dense, hairs white or a mixture of white and yellow, hairs straight or wavy, hairs appressed or spreading. Blade margins flat or slightly revolute or strongly revolute, blades lobed or not lobed. Blade margins entire or serrulate or serrate or crenate or dentate or deeply divided, glabrous or with non-glandular hairs, with 1–10 teeth on each side of the blade, with teeth all around the blade or toward the base or toward the apex; degree of incision (5–)25–70(–90)%; apices acuminate, or acute, or obtuse, or rounded, or retuse. Leaflet arrangement palmate, or pinnate, or digitate. Leaflets 3–16; 5–30(–35) mm long; 2–20 mm wide; oblong, or elliptic, or ovate, or obovate, or obtriangular; veins conspicuous. Apical leaflet base distinctly stipitate, or not distinctly stipitate; stipe 0–7 mm long.
Reproductive morphology. Plants dioecious, or bisexual, or agamospermic. Flowering stems shorter than the leaves, or about as high as the leaves, or conspicuously taller than the leaves; with leaves, or without leaves, or without leaves in the upper half. Flowering stems hairy. Flowering stems pubescent, or pilose, or villous, or tomentose, or woolly, or long-silky. Flowering stem hairs simple; shorter than the diameter of the flowering stem, or longer than the diameter of the flowering stem; white or translucent, or brown; glandular hairs present, or absent. Flowers solitary, or in inflorescences. Inflorescences cymose (usually), or head-like (if applicable); terminal, or lateral; dense, or diffuse; elongating as the fruit matures, or not elongating as the fruit matures. Pedicels absent, or present. Flowers per inflorescence 1–20; small, or medium-sized, or large; unisexual, or bisexual. Sepals conventional. Epicalyx present, or absent. Epicalyx segments (1.8–)2–9 mm long (if applicable). Epicalyx segments 0.4–4 mm wide (if applicable). Epicalyx segments shorter than the calyx segments, or equal in length to the calyx segments. Epicalyx segments narrower than the calyx segments. Sepals 4–10; free; 1.5–8 mm long; 3–14 mm wide; green, or brown, or purple, or red, or black; accrescent, or non-accrescent. Calyx with sessile glands, or without sessile glands; hairy. Calyx hairs pilose, or villous, or woolly, or short-silky, or long-silky; glandular, or non-glandular; white or translucent, or brown, or black. Calyx margins ciliate, or margins without cilia. Petals conventional; free; shorter than the calyx, or same length as the calyx, or longer than the calyx; 4–7(–11); green, or white, or yellow, or pink, or purple; with contrasting markings, or without contrasting markings; obovate (usually), or elliptic, or ovate; unlobed, or slightly lobed or undulating; 2.5–10(–18) mm long; (0.5–)2–12(–14) mm wide. Stamens present; (5–)15–40(–70); stamen filaments glabrous. Anthers purple, or yellow; ellipsoid, or sub-globose, or triangular; 0.2–1.2 mm long. Ovary superior, or partly inferior; carpels 7–40(–60); apocarpous. Styles 0.5–3(–6) mm long; conical, or straight; basal portion smooth, or covered with short papillae, less than 0.1 mm high, or covered with long papillae, 0.1 mm high or higher, or with hairs at the base. Ovules per ovary 1. Fruit sessile, or stalked; with calyx persisting, or without calyx persisting; fleshy, or dry; an aggregate of drupelets, or an aggregate of achenes; ovoid; black, or brown, or red, or green at maturity, or golden brown, or straw-coloured; (0.5–)1–2(–15) mm long; 5–9 mm wide; glabrous, or hairy; surface venation reticulate, or appearing veinless; indehiscent. Styles modified and persisting (Dryas), or persisting but not modified; becoming plumose (in Dryas; otherwise unmodified).
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..