Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Ranunculaceae A.L. de Jussieu

Ranunculaceae, Buttercup family.

Vegetative morphology. Plants 1–45 cm high; perennial herbs; caespitose, or not caespitose; without milky juice (but with acrid juice). Only fibrous roots present. Ground level or underground stems horizontal; rhizomatous, or stoloniferous; elongate, or compact. Ground level or underground stems scales present; 2–5 (if applicable). Caudex present, or absent. Aerial stems erect, or decumbent, or prostrate. Aerial stem trichomes spreading, or erect. Leaves heterophyllous, or not heterophyllous; mainly basal, or distributed along the stems, or arising singly from creeping rhizomes, or basal in a rosette; erect; alternate; persistent, or dying annually and non-persistent. Stipules absent (base of leaves sometimes dilated). Petioles present; 4–120 mm long; winged, or not winged (dilated at the base); convex to flat in cross section; glabrous (usually), or hairy; villous (if applicable). Leaf blades simple (usually), or compound. Leaf blade bases cordate, or truncate, or obtuse, or attenuate, or rounded. Blades 4–55 mm long, 3–55 mm wide, spreading, linear or oblong or elliptic or circular or ovate or obovate or reniform or triangular, flat or revolute, veins pinnate or with three main veins or veins palmate. Blade adaxial surface dull or shiny, glabrous or glabrescent or hairy, hairs villous or short-silky, hairs simple, hairs sparse, hairs white, or translucent. Blade abaxial surface glabrescent or hairy, hairs pilose or villous or short-silky, hairs sparse or moderately dense, hairs white. Blade margins flat, blades lobed or not lobed. Blade margins entire or serrulate or serrate or crenate or dentate or deeply divided, glabrous or with non-glandular hairs, with teeth all around the blade or toward the apex; degree of incision 65–75%. Hydathodes present and conspicuous, or present but inconspicuous. Blade apices acuminate, or acute, or obtuse, or rounded. Leaflet arrangement palmate. Leaflets 3; (5–)10–20(–60) mm long; 1–4 mm wide; linear, or obovate, or obtriangular; veins conspicuous, or veins inconspicuous.

Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems shorter than the leaves, or conspicuously taller than the leaves; with leaves, or without leaves. Flowering stems hairy. Flowering stems pilose; rooting at the lower nodes, or not rooting at the lower nodes. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence absent; without calloused tip. Flowers solitary (usually), or in inflorescences. Inflorescences cymose (if applicable); terminal, or lateral. Involucral bracts Anemones have a whorl of leaves surrounding the flowering stem well below the inflorescence that is known as an involucra. Flowers per inflorescence 1–5; small, or medium-sized, or large. Sepals conventional; 3–8; free; 1–15 mm long; 2–45 mm wide; green, or yellow, or brown, or purple, or red, or blue, or white; herbaceous, or scarious, or petaloid; non-accrescent. Calyx glabrous, or hairy. Calyx hairs pubescent, or villous; non-glandular; white or translucent, or brown. Petals conventional; free; same length as the calyx, or longer than the calyx; 3–9(–11); white, or yellow; obovate, or oblanceolate; unlobed; 2.5–12(–15) mm long; 1–5(–9) mm wide. Stamens 8–90; stamen filaments all equal in length; stamen filaments glabrous; free of the corolla. Anthers yellow; ellipsoid, or long-cylindrical; 0.18–2 mm long. Nectaries present (usually). Receptacle 1–4–12 mm high; surface glabrous, or hairy. Ovary carpels 4–100; apocarpous. Stipes 0.05–0.3 mm long. Ovaries glabrous, or hairy; villous. Ovary hairs very dense; white. Styles 0.1–3 mm long. Stigmas per ovary 1. Ovules per ovary 1 (per follicle). Fruit sessile, or stalked; stalk 2–20 mm long; without calyx persisting (in mature fruit); dry; an aggregate of achenes, or an aggregate of follicles; spherical, or ellipsoid, or ovoid, or elongate-cylindrical, or obovate, or oblong; yellowish, or black, or brown, or purple, or green at maturity; 1–45 mm long; 0.8–4(–70) mm wide; glabrous, or hairy; surface venation reticulate; dehiscent, or indehiscent. Styles modified and persisting, or persisting but not modified; remaining straight; persisting in fruit 0.2–38 mm long. Seeds 1–15; 1–2 mm long; brown; surfaces smooth.


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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