Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Pyrolaceae Dumortier

English: Wintergreen family.

Pyrolaceae, Wintergreen family.

Vegetative morphology. Plants (3–)5–25 cm high; perennial herbs. Taproot present, or only fibrous roots present. Ground level or underground stems horizontal, or vertical. Caudex present. Aerial stems erect. Leaves persistent. Stipules absent. Petioles present, or absent. Leaf blade bases obtuse, or rounded. Blades 5–30 mm long, (2–)5–30 mm wide, spreading, oblong or circular or ovate. Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous. Blade margins entire or serrulate, with teeth all around the blade (if applicable); apices obtuse, or rounded.

Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems with leaves. Inflorescences racemose, or paniculate, or spicate (superficially); diffuse; linear, or oblong; 1.5–7.5 cm long; 5–30 mm wide. Bract leaves 4–8 mm long (P. grandiflora); 1.5–3 mm wide. Flowers per inflorescence (3–)5–10(–15); small, or medium-sized. Sepals conventional; 5; free; 0.6–1.5 mm long; 1–3 mm wide; green, or yellow, or pink. Calyx glabrous. Petals conventional; free; 5; green, or white, or yellow, or pink; obovate, or lanceolate; unlobed; 3.5–6.5 mm long; 2.2–5.5 mm wide. Stamens 8–10; stamen filaments glabrous. Anthers yellow; short-cylindrical (opening by pores at the ends). Anthers opening with a terminal pore. Anthers 1.4–2.2 mm long. Nectaries present. Ovary superior; carpels 5; syncarpous. Ovaries sub-globose; glabrous. Styles 3–7 mm long; straight; basal portion smooth. Stigmas per ovary 1. Placentation parietal. Ovules per ovary numerous. Fruit stalked; stalk 2–5 mm long; with calyx persisting; dry; a capsule; spherical; black, or brown, or red; 2.5–6 mm long; 3–6 mm wide; surface appearing veinless; dehiscent; opening with teeth at the top of the capsule, or splitting to the base into separate segments. Seeds 0.5–1 mm long; yellowish; surfaces smooth, tuberculate.


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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