Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
English: Primrose family.
Primulaceae, Primrose family.
Vegetative morphology. Plants 2–30 cm high; annual herbs, or biennial herbs, or perennial herbs. Taproot present, or only fibrous roots present. Ground level or underground stems horizontal, or absent; stoloniferous (if applicable); elongate, or compact; 0.4–0.6 mm wide (if applicable). Horizontal stems at ground level, branching extensively to shape plant habit as mats, or cushions. Caudex present, or absent. Aerial stems a small transition zone between taproot and basal leaves; erect (usually solitary, below the umbel). Leaves mainly basal, or basal in a rosette; alternate, or whorled; dying annually and non-persistent. Petioles present, or absent; 3–10 mm long (if applicable); glabrous (if present). Leaf blade bases truncate. Blades 2–20 mm long, 1–8 mm wide, linear or lanceolate or oblanceolate or obovate, flat, veins pinnate or appearing single-veined. Blade adaxial surface glabrous or hairy, hairs villous, hairs simple or branched, hairs sparse or moderately dense or dense, hairs white, or translucent. Blade abaxial surface glabrous or hairy, hairs sparse, hairs white. Blade margins entire or serrulate (very slightly), glabrous or with non-glandular hairs, with teeth toward the apex (if applicable); apices acuminate, or acute, or obtuse, or rounded.
Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems without leaves. Flowers solitary (rarely), or in inflorescences. Inflorescences with flowers in umbels (usually); 0.5–5 cm long; 5–10(–13) mm wide. Pedicels present. Flowers per inflorescence (1–)2–16; small. Sepals conventional; 5; fused; 2–8 mm wide; green; herbaceous, or fleshy (slightly in Primula). Calyx bell-shaped, or funnel-form; 5-lobed; glabrous, or hairy. Calyx hairs puberulent, or villous; glandular, or non-glandular; white or translucent. Petals conventional; fused (with a constricted throat, and spreading, lobed petals); 5; white, or yellow, or purple; with contrasting markings (in the form of colour contrast between the petal-lobes and the throat); 4–10 mm long. Corolla rotate, or campanulate; 5-lobed. Stamens 5; stamen filaments markedly unequal in length, or all equal in length (family characteristic); fused to the corolla. Anthers yellow; 0.4–1 mm long. Ovary superior; carpels 5; syncarpous. Ovaries sub-globose; glabrous. Styles 1. Stigmas per ovary 1. Placentation free central. Fruit with calyx persisting; dry; a capsule; elongate-cylindrical, or bell-shaped, or oblong, or elongate-cylindrical; black, or brown, or golden brown; 2–4 mm long; 2–3 mm wide; dehiscent; opening with teeth at the top of the capsule, or splitting to the base into separate segments. Seeds 5–100; 0.4–1.6 mm long; brown; surfaces smooth, verrucose, reticulate.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..