Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
English: Northern reedgrass,
French: Calamagrostide raide,
Inuktitut: Iviit, ivisuka, ivitsuskaka.
Poaceae, Grass family.
Published in Ann. Univ. Lublin, sect. C, 3: 242. 1948.
Type: Described and typified from Canada: Labrador, leg. Kohlmeister, not from Greenland. Greene (1980). Holotye: M.
Synonymy. Arundo groenlandica Schrank, Denkschr. Königl.-Baier. Bot. Ges. Regensburg 1, 2: 8. 1818.
Calamagrostis groenlandica (Schrank) Kunth, Révis. Gram. 1: 79. 1829.
Calamagrostis stricta subsp. groenlandica (Schrank) Á. Löve, Taxon 19: 299. 1970.
Calamagrostis neglecta var.borealis (Laest.) Trautv., Trudy Imp. S.-Peterburgsk. Bot. Sada 5: 143. 1877.
Calamagrostis neglecta subsp. borealis (Laest.) Selander, Acta Phytogeogr. Suec. 28: 35. 1950 (preface dated 20.02.1950, publication date uncertain). Or: (Laest.) Á. Löve, Bot. Not. 103: 27. 1950 (published 31.03.1950).
Calamagrostis hyperborea Lange, Fl. Dan. 17, 50: t. 2942. 1880.
Calamagrostis chordorrhiza A.E. Porsild, Sargentia 4: 9–10. 1943.
Vegetative morphology. Plants 25–100 cm high; perennial herbs; caespitose (sometimes loosely so). Only fibrous roots present. Ground level or underground stems horizontal; rhizomatous; elongate; 0.5–1.5 mm wide. Ground level or underground stems scales present; surfaces smooth, or striate; (5–)15–25 mm long; glabrous. Aerial stems erect, or ascending. Leaves mainly basal and distributed along the stems; alternate; marcescent. Petioles absent. Sheaths present; with the margins fused only in the lower part; glabrous; sheath collars present. Ligules present; 0.1–3.5(–6.5) mm long; membranous; hairy (abaxial surface); ovate-oblong. Ligule apices acute, or obtuse; entire, or erose (and ciliate). Leaves grass-like. Blades 30–80 mm long, 1–2 mm wide (flat, often slightly rolled), appressed to the stem or spreading, rolled in bud, linear, without auricles (ligules decurrent), flat or involute, veins parallel, midvein similar in size to other veins in the leaf. Blade adaxial surface glabrous (or minutely scaberulous). Blade abaxial surface glabrous.
Reproductive morphology. Plants bisexual, or agamospermic. Flowering stems circular or oval in cross section. Flowering stems with leaves; culm nodes becoming exposed; culm nodes number visible 1. Inflorescences paniculate; dense; lanceolate; 3–4(–5) cm long (Arctic Island specimens, -12(-18) cm long much further south); 7–15 mm wide. Inflorescences main axis scabrous. Number of inflorescence branches at lowest node 1–2. Inflorescence primary branches 8–12(–40) mm long; scabrous; with appressed secondary branches. Spikelets disarticulating above the glumes; lanceolate; (2.8–)3.5–4.5(–4.7) mm long; 1.5–2(–3) mm wide. Florets per spikelet 1(–2). Two glumes present. First glume 0.9–1 × the length of the second glume; 0.9–0.95 × spikelet length; (2.8–)3.2–4(–4.3) mm long; lanceolate; glabrous, or with trichomes (scaberulous on midvein and towards the apex); margins glabrous; veins 1(–2); apex acuminate. Second glume as long or longer than the spikelet; almost as long as, or longer than, the lowest floret; (2.8–)3.5–4.5 mm long. Second glume lanceolate. Second glume with trichomes (scaberulous, towards the apex); veins 1–3. Rachilla not pronounced between the florets; terminating in a well-formed floret, or extending beyond the uppermost floret; internode 0.4–2 mm long (with hairs longer than the rachilla). Callus differentiated; hairs 1–1.5(–2.2) mm long; hairs shorter than the floret. Lemma lanceolate; (2.4–)3.2–4.2 mm long; rounded on the back; surface dull; surface glabrous, or sparsely scabrous (minutely scaberulous); veins 1–3(–5); apex acuminate, or acute; apex entire, or bifid (slightly); apex scabrous (minutely); awned. Awn arising from the middle or below. Awn 0.15–2 mm long. Palea well developed; (1.9–)3–3.2 mm long; veins glabrous, or scabrous. Flowers bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic); bisexual. Perianth represented by lodicules. Stamens 3. Anthers (1.3–)1.8–2.2 mm long. Ovary superior; carpels 3; syncarpous. Ovaries glabrous. Styles 2. Placentation basal. Ovules per ovary 1. Fruit sessile; dry; a caryopsis; 1.3–1.6 mm long (data from continental N.W.T. specimens, as none have been found in Arctic Island specimens); glabrous; indehiscent. Seeds 1.
Chromosome information. 2n (4x) = 28. Flovik (1938, 1940, Svalbard, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'groenlandica'); Rozanova (1940); Nygren (1946, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'stricta' and 'groenlandica', 1948b, 1958, 1962, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'stricta'); Löve and Löve (1948, northern Europe; 1956, Iceland, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'stricta' and 'groenlandica'); Böcher and Larsen (1950, Greenland, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'groenlandica'); Löve (1950 Iceland?, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'groenlandica'); Jørgensen et al. (1958, as C. groenlandica); Bowden (1960a, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'stricta'); Sokolovskaya and Strelkova (1960, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'groenlandica'); Knaben and Engelskjøn (1967, Norway); Johnson and Packer (1968, northwestern Alaska, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'groenlandica'); Zhukova and Tikhonova (1971, Chukotka, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'stricta'); Sokolovskaya and Probatova in Tzvelev (1976, for 'stricta' and 'groenlandica'); Engelskjøn (1979, Bear Island); Arohonka (1982, Finland); Löve and Löve (1981, northern Canada); Dalgaard (1988 western Greenland).
2n = 40. Hedberg (1967, northern Canada, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'groenlandica').
2n (6x) = 42. Johnson and Packer (1968, northwestern Alaska, by Löve and Löve 1975, as 'groenlandica').
2n (about 8x) = 56–60. Rozanova (1940, 2n = 56); Sokolovskaya and Probatova (1977).
2n (10x) = 70. Avdulov (1931); Tischler (1934); Sokolovskaya and Probatova (1977).
2n (12x) = 84. Tateoka (1976, Japan); Sokolovskaya and Probatova in Tzvelev (1976, for 'groenlandica'); Sokolovskaya and Probatova (1977, as 'groenlandica').
Ploidy levels recorded 4x, 6x, 8x, 10x, and 12x.
Ecology and habitat. Substrates: lakeshores, slopes, ridges, barrens; dry, moderately well-drained areas; gravel. Rocky plances and banks of rivers, Masik River, (CAN 385464); dry slope, western exposure, Mould Bay.
North American distribution. Yukon, Northwest Territories Islands. Arctic islands: Parry islands, Banks (Melville and Prince Patrick).
General notes. The name of the species is disputed, as Calamagrostis neglecta or C. stricta. These two names refer to the same species or subspecies. The priority name C. neglecta was rejected because it had been assumed to apply a to previously described A. halleri Willd., and therefore A. neglecta becomes a nomen illegitimum. However, this was argued by Tzvelev (1973) , who reinstated C. neglecta. Soreng et al. (2003) treated C. neglecta as a nom. illeg. superfl. but do not appear to have considered Tzvelev's arguements. As long as it has not finally been refuted, we use here the priority name, C. neglecta.
The 'neglecta groenlandica' entity is mainly or entirely tetraploid and sexual. It is also heterogeneous, and both Russians (Tzvelev) and North Americans (Soreng et al. 2003) accept two races, a mainly boreal subsp. neglecta (subsp. stricta) that does not reach the islands, and a subsp. groenlandica that does.
Elven (personal communication, 2005) drew attention to a specimen he collected that belongs to C. neglecta subsp. groenlandica: Melville Island SE: Valley W of Beverley Inlet, inland from Skene Bay, S of and near lake. 75° 03.595'N 107° 50.017'W. 13.08.1999. Leg. R. Elven (O). This supplements the earlier record from Mould Bay, Prince Patrick Island, indicating this taxon is present in the western arctic islands and not merely an accidental introduction by planes landing at Mould Bay.
Greene annotated three specimens from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago as C. stricta var. borealis var. (Laest.) Hartm. in 1997, presumably planning to recognise this taxon in the Flora of North America treatment. Data from specimens that Greene annotated have been used to gather the data used to describe this taxon.
Another entity that is part of the C. neglecta aggregate (Elven et al. 2003) is the 'inexpansa' entity, which is probably entirely high-polyploid and agamospermic. Greene suggested it as a case of autopolyploidy, and therefore considered it a subspecies of C. neglecta (C. stricta in his treatment). It is found in continental arctic regions of North America (Greene 1980) but has not yet been confirmed in the Flora region.
Illustrations. • Rhizome. Note rhizome and compact inflorescence N.W.T., Prince Patrick Island, Mould Bay. 22 July, 1952. S.D. MacDonald 47. CAN 220165. • Close-up of inflorescence. Close-up of compact inflorescence with spikelets at anthesis. NWT., Banks Island, Masik River. 25 July, 1986. M. Kuc. CAN 385464. • Close-up of spikelet. Inflorescence. A) scabrous rachis, B) first glume, C) second glume, glumes relatively short, acute not acuminate, D) lemma (the short awn enclosed within the spikelet is not visible), E) palea. NWT., Banks Island, Masik River. 25 July, 1986. M. Kuc. CAN 385464. • Awn within lemma. Close-up of spikelet. Note subequal glumes, lemma awn (a) shorter than the lemma and contained within the glumes, short callus hairs (b) less than one third the length of the lemma. 22 July, 1952. S.D. MacDonald 47. CAN 220165. • Arctic Island Distribution.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..