Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
English: Lapland reedgrass,
French: Calamagrostis de Lapointe,
Inuktitut: Iviit, ivisuka, ivitsuskaka.
Poaceae, Grass family.
Published in Gen. Gram. 5. 1819.
Type: Finland: Arundo coerulea, Kemi Lappmark vid Utsjoki sjöarna, 07.08.1802, leg. Wahlenberg
Synonymy. Arundo lapponica Wahlenb., Fl. Lapp. 27, t. 11812.
Calamagrostis lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartm. var. optima Hartm., Handb. Skand. Fl., ed. 5, 300. 1849.
Calamagrostis lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartm. var. groenlandica Lange, Medd. Grønl. 3 (Consp. Fl. Groenl. 2): 296. 1887.
Calamagrostis. sibirica Petrov., Fl. Yakut. 1: 203. 1930.
Calamagrostis lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartm. subsp. sibirica (Petrov.) Tzvelev, Nov. Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 1965: 31. 1965.
Calamagrostis henriettae Petrov Fl. Yakut. 1: 207. 1930.
Calamagrostis lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartm. var. nearctica A.E. Porsild, Sargentia 4: 10. 1943.
Calamagrostis gorodkovii V.N.Vassil., Feddes Repert. 68: 227. 1963.
Vegetative morphology. Aerial stems not filiform. Leaves present; distributed along the stems; marcescent. Petioles absent. Sheaths present; sheath collars present. Ligules present. Leaves grass-like. Blades linear.
Reproductive morphology. Inflorescences paniculate. Two glumes present. Callus not differentiated. Flowers radially symmetrical (actinomorphic); bisexual. Sepals modified (but not a pappus). Petals modified as bristles or perigynia. Stamens 3. Styles 2. Placentation basal. Ovules per ovary 1.
Chromosome information. 2n = 28-140.
2n (4x) = 28. Sokolovskaya and Strelkova (1960); Bowden (1960); Belaeva and Siplivinsky (1981, eastern Siberia).
2n = 32. Bowden (1960, southern Canada).
2n (6x) = 42. Nygren (1946 northern Scandinavia, by Löve and Löve 1975, as C. sibirica); Delay (1947); Böcher and Larsen (1950 Greenland, by Löve and Löve 1975, as C. sibirica); Jørgensen et al. (1958, Greenland, by Löve and Löve 1975, as C. sibirica); Bowden (1960a northeastern Canada, Löve and Löve 1975, as C. sibirica); Zhukova and Petrovsky (1976, western Chukotka).
2n (7x) = 49. Nygren (1946, northern Scandinavia).
2n = about 84–140 (14x-20x). Nygren (1946, 2n = 98–112); Bowden (1960a, 2n = 98–140); Zhukova and Berg (1965, southern Norway, 2n = about 112); Mäkinen (1967, Finland, 2n = about 112); Johnson and Packer (1968, northwestern Alaska, 2n = 112); Sokolovskaya (1970, northeastern Russia, 2n = about 120); Krogulevich (1971, southern Siberia, 2n = about 100; 1976, northern Siberia; 2n = about 84); Petrovsky (1975, western Chukota, 2n = 112); Sokolovskaya and Probatova (1977, 2n = about 100, as 'sibirica'); Löve and Löve (198, central Canada, 2n = 112).
General notes. Porsild (1957) mapped a single record from Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. It is presumably based on the specimens J.A. Calder, 2155, 25 July 1948, gravel along Sylvia Grinnell River. Only 1 small colony. DAO 19019 and DAO 106575. Sheet DAO 19019 was annotated as C. lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartm. in 1951, by P. Ls-M l'Institute Agricole d'Oka, with the note, the culm and leaves a little stiff, but the awn and callus-hairs are quite typical; trichomes not well developed. In early July, 2004, Aiken found previous season's Calamagrostis straw in a small patch near the Sylvia Grinnell River opposite the end of the runway. It is known from their diaries that Senn and Calder, who botanised around Iqaluit in 1948, used to travel to the end of the runway with the water truck that drove down regularly to obtain water for the Military base at Crystal 2.
Elven examined the Calder 2155 specimen in May, 2005, and annotated it as C. lapponicum because the specimen has relatively short leaves, few nodes culm nodes exposed, leaves that tend to be inrolled and glabrous or almost glabrouse on the abaxial surface. Elven noted that the species is a polyplid and never found with functional anthers. The sterial anther "ghosts" may remain in the inflorescences long after flowering.
Illustrations. • Pressed herbarium specimen. Close-up of pressed rhizomatous plant. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit, gravel bank along Sylvia Grinnell River, single small colony. J.A. Calder 2155. DAO 106575. • Rhizome. Creeping rhizome at the base of the plant. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit, gravel bank along Sylvia Grinnell River, single small colony. J.A. Calder 2155. DAO 106575. • Close-up of prophyll. Prophyll (a) with two main veins visible. Note the abaxial surface of the leaf is relatively smooth. DAO 106575. • Close-up of spikelet. Apex of inflorescence with close-up of spikelet (top right) and floret upside-down (top centre-left). Note relatively long callus hairs, about 75% of the length of the lemma. Note geniculate awn that arises from above the middle of the lemma and is longer than the glumes. Note acuminate tip on the lemma and two dark coloured veins of the palea, which is as long as the lemma. Note the glumes are shorter than those of C. canadensis but much more acute than in C. neglecta. J. A. Calder 2155. DAO 106575. • Close-up of ligule. Close-up of an erect auricle (a) and a relatively long ligule (b). Abaxial surface of leaf is relatively smooth. DAO 19019. • Close-up of purple node. Dark purple node, membranous sheath margin, blade surface ribbed with small trichomes on the ridges. DAO 19019. • Arctic Island Distribution.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..