Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Plantaginaceae A.L. de Jussieu

English: Plantain family.

Plantaginaceae, Plantain family.

Vegetative morphology. Plants 3–25(–30) cm high; perennial herbs; caespitose. Taproot present. Ground level or underground stems vertical. Caudex present. Aerial stems erect. Leaves mainly basal; alternate, or whorled; marcescent. Petioles present, or absent; 2–50 mm long (if applicable); convex to flat in cross section; glabrous, or hairy; woolly (if applicable). Petiole hairs shorter than the diameter of the petiole; appressed, or spreading; straight. Ligules absent (although the leaves are sometimes grass-like). Leaves grass-like. Blades (10–)15–90 mm long, 0.8–8 mm wide, spreading, linear or lanceolate, flat, veins parallel or with inconspicuous veins. Blade adaxial surface glabrous or hairy, hairs pilose (if applicable), hairs simple, hairs sparse, hairs white, or translucent. Blade abaxial surface glabrous or hairy, hairs pilose, hairs sparse or moderately dense, hairs white and a mixture of white and yellow (if applicable), hairs curved or wavy, hairs spreading. Blade margins entire or dentate (very slightly), with teeth all around the blade (if applicable); apices acuminate, or acute.

Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems without leaves. Inflorescences head-like and spicate; dense; linear, or oblong, or lanceolate, or cylindrical; 0.5–3(–4) cm long; 5–10 mm wide. Pedicels absent. Floral bracts tawny, or purplish red; 1.8–2.5 mm long; glabrous, or hairy mainly at apex; hairs sparse; hairs straight. Flowers per inflorescence (5–)10–80; small. Sepals conventional; 4; free; 1.2–3 mm wide; brown, or white, or purplish red. Calyx glabrous. Petals conventional; fused; 4; white, or pink, or purple; 4–5 mm long; 1–2 mm wide. Corolla rotate, or tubular; 4-lobed. Stamens 4; stamen filaments glabrous (long exerted); fused to the corolla. Anthers yellow (conspicuous at anthesis); short-cylindrical (apiculate). Anthers splitting longitudinally. Anthers 1–2 mm long. Ovary superior; carpels 2; syncarpous. Ovaries ovate; glabrous. Styles 1. Stigmas per ovary 1. Placentation axile. Ovules per ovary 4. Fruit sessile; with calyx persisting; dry; a capsule; spherical, or ovoid; yellowish, or brown; 2.5–3.5 mm long; 1.5–2 mm wide; not distinctly flattened; dehiscent; splitting around the middle releasing a cup-shaped cap. Seeds 4; 1.4–1.8 mm long; black, or brown; surfaces smooth.


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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