Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
English: Northern poppy, arctic poppy,
French: Pavot arctique,
Inuktitut: Igutsat niqingit.
Papaveraceae, Poppy family.
Synonymy. The following taxa are included in this description (see discussion below):
Papaver nudicaule L. subsp. radicatum var. (gamma) labradoricum Fedde in Engl., Pflanzenreich IV-104, 40: 377. 1909. Described from W Greenland and NE Canada, not typified.
Papaver radicatum Rottb. subsp. labradoricum (Fedde) Fedde in Engl. and Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 17b: 120. 1936.
Papaver lapponicum (Tolm.) Nordh. subsp. labradoricum (Fedde) Knaben, Blyttia 16: 78. 1958.
Papaver radicatum Rottb. subsp. lapponicum Tolm., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 4: 86. 1923. Type: European Russia: Kola Peninsula, Oz. Imandra, 01.Aug.1911, R.Pohle (LE) lectotype, selected by Egorova, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 98. 1998. The typification of Löve (1962b) is rejected.
Papaver lapponicum (Tolm.) Nordh., Bergens Mus. Årbok 1931, Naturv. Rekke 2: 45–46. 1932.
Papaver radicatum Rottb. subsp. occidentale C.E. Lundstr., Acta Horti Berg. 7, 5: 413. 1923. Described from NE Greenland, not typified.
Papaver lapponicum (Tolm.) Nordh. subsp. occidentale (C.E. Lundstr.) Knaben, Opera Bot. 2, 3: 413. 1959.
Papaver radicatum Rottb. subsp. polare Tolm., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Glavn. Bot. Sada RSFSR 4: 87. 1923. Type: Svalbard: Spitzbergen, Advent-Bay, 05–30.July.1898, leg. Semenkevich (LE) lectotype, selected by Egorova, Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 31: 101. 1998.
Papaver polare (Tolm.) Perfil., Fl. N. Kray 1–2: 131. 1936.
Papaver dahlianum Nordh. subsp. polare (Tolm.) Elven and O. Nilsson, in Jonsell, Nordic J. Bot. 20: 522. 2001.
Papaver dahlianum Nordh., Bergens Mus. Árbok 1931, Naturv. Rekke 2: 46. 1932. Type: Norway: Finnmark, Syltefjord, Oesterelven, 04.July.1930, leg. R. Nordhagen (O) lectotype, selected by Elven and Nilsson in Jonsell, Nordic J. Bot. 20: 521. 2001.
Papaver cornwallisense D. Löve in Löve and Freedman, Bot. Not. 109: 176. 1956. Type: Canada: ex Insula Corn
wallis in Archipelago Arctico Americae, 31.July.1954, J. Ritchie 663. Holotype: WIN.
Papaver lapponicum (Tolm.) Nordh. subsp. porsildii Knaben, Blyttia 16: 79. 1958. Type: Canada: Foxe Basin, Prince Charles Island, grown in Oslo from seeds collected by A.E.Porsild 1949, pressed 07.Oct.1951, leg. G.Knaben 1347 (O) holotype.
Vegetative morphology. Plants (5–)10–25(–35) cm high; herbs; perennial herbs; caespitose. Taproot present. Ground level or underground stems vertical. Caudex present (at ground level and tapering into a long taproot). Aerial stems a small transition zone between taproot and basal leaves. Leaves mainly basal (basal); alternate; dying annually and non-persistent (leaf blades persisting for a single season or less), or marcescent (with several persisting leaf bases, flexible, lanceolate, short-ciliate, glabrous to hispid, brownish to yellowish grey). Petioles 5–60 mm long; half to three quarters the length of the blade; flat; hairy. Leaf colouration concolorous, approximately the same colour on both surfaces. Leaf blade bases truncate, or obtuse, or cuneate. Blades 10–90(–120) mm long, 8–20 mm wide, flat, veins pinnate. Blade adaxial surface dull (green to greyish or bluish green, nearly similar on both surfaces), hairy, hairs simple, hairs moderately dense or dense (long hairs), hairs white, or translucent (or light brown). Blade abaxial surface glaucous (slightly), hairy, hairs moderately dense, hairs white (or light brown). Blades lobed (1–2 times, with 2–3 pairs of primary lateral lobes). Leaf primary lobes mostly undivided or with mostly simple primary lobes or mostly divided, with more than 5 primary lobes, ovate-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate or narrowly oblanceolate, all lobes pointing forwards (or the lower pair distinctly divergent). Blade margins with non-glandular hairs; apices acute, or obtuse (frequently bristle-tipped).
Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems conspicuously taller than the leaves. Flowering stems erect, straight. Flowering stems without leaves (scape erect, straight). Flowering stem moderately hairy with short, subappressed to subpatent brown to pale hairs. Flowers solitary. Flowers medium-sized (rarely), or large. Sepals conventional; 2 (connate, igloo-shaped, with specialised margins, enclosing the bud, caducous; bud broadly to narrowly oblong); free; 8–12 mm wide; green, or pink (pinkish), or brown (pale). Calyx hairy. Calyx hairs brown, or black. Petals conventional; free; 4; yellow, or white (with a basal spot), or pink (very rarely), or orange (very rarely); obovate; unlobed (but sometimes and in some forms distinctly fringed); 10–25 mm long; (6–)8–20 mm wide. Stamens 20–50 (or more, numerous). Anthers yellow; short-cylindrical. Ovary superior; carpels 4–8; syncarpous. Ovaries hairy; strigose (bristles). Ovary hairs moderately dense, or very dense; brown; appressed (subappressed, subpatent); straight (or slightly curved, with thickened bases). Styles absent (4–8 stigmas). Stigmatic disc shape flat or convex (but not peaked) rays not decurrent or only slightly so. Placentation parietal. Ovules per ovary 100–500 (numerous). Fruit dry; a capsule; spherical (subglobular). Capsule 2–2.5 times longer than broad, or 1–1.5 times longer than broad. Fruit brown (brownish black); 5–20 mm long; 5–9 mm wide; hairy. Capsule trichomes dark brown. Fruit not distinctly flattened; dehiscent. Styles [stigmas] persisting. Seeds 100–500 (numerous); 0.9–1.1 mm long; brown; surfaces ridged (reticulate).
Chromosome information. 2n = 56, or 70, or 84 (2n=84 not yet proved in Arctic Canada).
2n = 56 (octoploid). Solstad (unpublished, flow cytometry, Canada: Baffin, four populations, as labradoricum, S Ellesmere, as P. cf. lapponicum); Horn (1938, N Scandinavia, P. lapponicum s.s.); Nygren, in Löve and Löve (1948, N Scandinavia, P. lapponicum s.s.); Knaben (1958, 1959a, and 1959b, northern Scandinavia, P. lapponicum s.s., 1959a, 1959b, Canada, as P. lapponicum subsp. porsildii); Löve and Löve (1961d, N Scandinavia, P. lapponicum s.s.); Löve (1962a and 1962b, N Scandinavia, P. lapponicum s.s.); Mosquin and Hayley (1966, Canada: Prince Patrick and Ellesmere Is. as P. radicatum s.l.); Dawe and Murray, in Löve (1979, Alaska, as P. lapponicum); Dalgaard (1988, western Greenland, as P. lapponicum).
2n = 70 (decaploid). Solstad (unpublished, flow cytometry, Canada: S Ellesmere, two populations, but see below); Horn (1938, Norway, two counts, P. dahlianum s.s., Svalbard, P. polare); Flovik (1940, Svalbard, P. polare); Holmen (1952, N Greenland, probably P. polare); Knaben (1959a, 1959b, Norw, three counts, P. dahlianum s.s., Svalbard, three counts, P. polare); Mosquin and Hayley (1966, Canada: Melville I., as P. radicatum, possibly P. dahlianum polare).
2n = 84 (dodecaploid). Löve (1962b, Canada, Cornwallis I., as P. cornwallisense; the Löve count was doubted by Kiger and Murray 1997); Jørgensen et al. (1958, N Greenland).
In flow cytometry (Solstad unpublished), it is not possible to separate between decaploids and dodecaploids. The two highest flow cytometry values measured on Arctic Canadian material come from S Ellesmere and Cornwallis Islands plants, the last one very similar in morphology to cornwallisense. These might be dodecaploid.
Indigenous knowledge. Inuit refer to Arctic poppy as igutsat niqingit. Igutsat translates as "bumble-bees", a reference to the observation that the yellow flowers are much appreciated by bumble-bees. Igutsat niqingit means "bumble-bee food" (Ootoova et al. 2001).
Ecology and habitat. Elevation 0–1000 m (This is, besides Saxifraga oppositifolia, the most hardy of all vascular plants in the High Arctic, reaching the highest altitudes and the northernmost latitudes of higher plants. The most hardy plants belong to the morphological P. dahlianum subsp. polare pattern described below.). Substrates: tundra, ridges, ridges (fellfields and scree), slopes, along streams, river terraces (everywhere there is open substrate); imperfectly drained moist areas, dry, moderately well-drained areas; rocks (scree, talus), gravel, sand, silt, till; with low organic content; acidic, or circum-neutral, or calcareous (indifferent). However, the different taxa do not seem to differ very much ecologically. They prefer mineral soil and therefore occupy most sites where the vegetation cover is kept open, either by cryoturbation, drought, or abration or by other disturbances. They also have a scattered distribution in closed vegetation, but then only in comparatively dry vegetation types. In the southern parts, with mostly closed vegetation, the distribution is often interrupted. In the high arctic, where the vegetation cover becomes patchy, the poppies grow almost everywhere except for wetlands.
The co-occurrence of two or more entities seems to be the rule rather than the exception. Some ecological differentiation may be involved but this has not been analysed. However, the entities often differ in ploidy levels, probably with fairly strong reproductive barriers. The investigated North European plants are self-compatible and mainly autogamous (Nordal et al. 1997), and the same is probably the case with most arctic poppies. Even if some garden hybridization is known, and a few chromosome counts have been made of intermediate ploidy levels, we have never observed obvious hybrids in nature and have found no plants with obviously reduced fertility.
North American distribution. Northwest Territories Islands, continental Northwest Territories, Nunavut Islands, continental Nunavut, northern Quebec, Labrador. Range in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago widespread. Common. Arctic, alpine.
Northern hemisphere distribution. Amphi-Atlantic (broadly). Northern Fennoscandian, KaninPechora, Svalbard Franz Joseph Land, Polar Ural Novaya Zemlya, YamalGydan, Taimyr Severnaya Zemlya, Central Canada, Labrador Hudson Bay, Ellesmere Land Peary Land, West Greenland, East Greenland.
General notes. The taxonomy of Papaver section Meconella Spach is controversial both in the Arctic and in temperate and boreal regions. In the last 60–70 years several approaches have been taken for arctic Canadian species. Polunin (1940, p.223) accepted a broad P. radicatum Rottb. in the eastern Canadian Arctic with the following justification: Whether or not the recent wholesale splitting of the Old World members of this group (cf. Nordhagen 1931) is justified I am quite unqualified to say, but certainly the material from within our area, variable as it is, seems to belong to one series that should be kept together under a single specific name. Fifteen years later Porsild (1955) followed the same policy for the poppies of the western Canadian Arctic, except that he accepted the Banks Island P. keelei A.E.Porsild as a separate species. He commented, however, that: On the basis of such combination of characters, it may be possible to recognize within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago four races of P. radicatum, each with a rather distinct geographical range (p. 118) without further elaboration.
Morphological, cytological and hybridization studies by Knaben (1959a, 1959b) resulted in her recognizing four non-intergrading species in the amphi-Atlantic region: a decaploid P. radicatum s. str. which she considered as strictly European (Iceland, the Faeroes, and Scandinavia), a decaploid P. dahlianum Nordh. as mainly high arctic in Greenland and arctic Europe, an octoploid P. laestadianum (Nordh.) Nordh. as a local endemic in N Scandinavia, and an octoploid P. lapponicum (Tolm.) Nordh. to which she assigned plants from N Russia, N Scandinavia, and all plants in Greenland and arctic Canada except for P. dahlianum. She also recognized three New World subspecies of P. lapponicum: subsp. occidentale (A.E.Lundstr.) G.Knaben, subsp. porsildii G.Knaben, and subsp. labradoricum (Fedde) G.Knaben - all present in both Greenland and arctic Canada, and a Scandinavian subsp. scandinavicum G.Knaben. Her treatment was supported by morphological features and partly by much lower fertility in crosses between races and species than within.
Confusion was caused by an ambiguous typification of the name P. radicatum. Knaben (1958) proposed a typification based on Icelandic plants, further argued for by Knaben & Hylander (1970). Löve (1955) proposed a typification based on Greenlandic plants (i.e., Knabens P. lapponicum), based on a suggestion by Hultén (1945) and further argued by Löve (1962a, 1962b). In Löves proposal, the Icelandic and Scandinavian plants are not P. radicatum. The issue is now solved by (hopefully) final typifications of P. radicatum on Icelandic material (Nilsson & Elven in Jonsell 2001) and also of P. lapponicum on NW Russian material (Egorova 1998). Whereas Knabens conclusions were accepted and applied in Europe, this was not the case in North America or Greenland. Böcher et al. (1978, p. 102) applied a broadly circumscribed P. radicatum in Greenland but suggested three smaller species (småarter in Danish): one P. sp. perhaps related to P. dahlianum, another P. sp. perhaps conspecific with P. cornwallisense D.Löve (described from Cornwallis Island), and a P. radicatum s. str. which they considered synonymous with P. lapponicum sensu Knaben and with three subspecies: subsp. radicatum (same as Knabens P. lapponicum subsp. occidentale), subsp. labradoricum and subsp. porsildii. Böcher then closely followed Knaben except with the opposite meaning for the name P. radicatum. The same was done by Porsild & Cody (1980) in that they accepted three species in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: P. keelei on Banks Island; P. cornwallisense on most of the islands (and in N Greenland) but rare or absent on most of Baffin Island; and P. radicatum (meaning P. lapponicum as now typified) throughout. Major parts of the treatments of Böcher et al. (1978) and Porsild & Cody (1980) are reflected in the molecular data we now have available.
A major effort to clarify the taxonomy was made by Kiger & Murray (1997, for arctic poppies mainly by Murray) in Flora of North America. Besides P. keelei (by them as P. macounii subsp. discolor (Hultén) Rändel ex D.F.Murray), they accepted three taxa in the islands: P. lapponicum, P. radicatum subsp. radicatum, and P. radicatum subsp. polare. In their synonymy, Knabens three Greenlandic and Canadian races of P. lapponicum were included in P. radicatum subsp. radicatum, P. cornwallisense was included in P. radicatum subsp. polare (which they, on the authority of Rändel 1974, considered as specifically different from P. dahlianum), whereas their P. lapponicum was based on the Russian description and included P. hultenii Knaben as a synonym. Their treatment must have been based on an assumption that Knabens Greenlandic-Canadian races of P. lapponicum (their P. radicatum) are specifically different from the N European P. lapponicum (their P. lapponicum). Many of the problems connected with the North American treatments are due to the persistent attempt in American tradition to apply European names to their poppies.
Our morphological and molecular (mainly AFLPs ― Amplified fragment length polymorphisms, a fingerprinting method) data are not in accordance with the Flora of North America treatment; they instead extend the taxonomy suggested by Böcher et al. (1978) and Porsild & Cody (1980), but with other names. There appear to be five separate entities (in addition P. keelei), likely best recognized at the specific level, in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The main features of our provisional revised taxonomy are:
(1) Papaver dahlianum (typified from mainland N Norway) and P. polare (Tolm.) Perfil., (P. radicatum subsp. polare, P. dahlianum subsp. polare (Tolm.) Elven & Ö.Nilsson, typified from the Svalbard islands) are conspecific and not separable by molecular markers. They are also similar in morphology. Papaver dahlianum (subsp. polare) is widespread in northern and western parts of the islands but rare in central, southern and eastern parts. Our range conforms closely with that made by Petrovsky (1999) from morphological evidence alone. Papaver dahlianum is morphologically close to P. cornwallisense but separable on, leaf and leaf lobe shape (ovate in P. dahlianum versus narrow, strap-shaped in P. cornwallisense), leaf color (greyish green versus dark to bluish green), and in capsule shape (more or less elongated pear-shaped versus subglobular). Molecular markers place Papaver dahlianum much closer to P. uschakovii Tolm. & V.V.Petrovsky from Wrangel Island and to a yet unnamed N Alaskan entity than to P. cornwallisense. Both Papaver dahlianum and P. cornwallisense are widespread in the Canadian Arctic, with overlapping ranges, but no clear intergradation has been observed in molecular markers. They are probably allopolyploids based on different parental combinations.
(2) Papaver cornwallisense is widespread (see above) but especially concentrated in the central, southern and eastern parts of the islands. This supports the proposal of Böcher et al. (1978). The P. cornwallisense of Porsild & Cody (1980), however, includes both P. cornwallisense and P. dahlianum. The affinity of P. cornwallisense judged by molecular markers is clearly to P. gorodkovii in Beringia (also morphologically in leaf color, in leaf lobe and capsule shape, and in often smaller flowers). Our molecular results also conform very well with the map of P. cornwallisense by Petrovsky (1999).
(3) Papaver lapponicum is polymorphic both in molecular markers and in morphology, but belongs to the same major group as P. radicatum (see next paragraph). Material from the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (except for most of Baffin Island) and from northern parts of Greenland constitute one subunit, corresponding with Knabens subsp. occidentale and also subsp. porsildii. Material from NE Greenland, N Scandinavia and N Ural mountains belong in another subunit, corresponding with subsp. lapponicum and including subsp. jugoricum (Tolm.) Tolm. of the Ural Mountains. Material from Taimyr in N Siberia forms the third subunit and corresponds with subsp. orientale Tolm. Much of the material we now assign to P. lapponicum subsp. occidentale was field identified as P. dahlianum subsp. polare because subsp. occidentale superficially resembles P. dahlianum morphologically (and even the original illustration of Lundström and his type specimen does). Molecular markers do not show close connections between P. dahlianum and P. lapponicum subsp. occidentale.
Papaver radicatum (as typified) is, in our material, restricted to Iceland and Scandinavia. Its closest relatives are found to the east, in N Russia and NW Siberia. None of our numerous samples from all major parts of Greenland and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago confirm the occurrence of P. radicatum in these areas. This supports the conclusions of Knaben (1959a, 1959b) and also those of Böcher et al. (1978) and Porsild & Cody (1980), but under different names.
(4) Material from the easternmost parts of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and W Greenland differ from all the other groups in molecular markers and are also distinct in morphological features. These plants were recognized early as a race labradoricum and treated by Knaben as P. lapponicum subsp. labradoricum. The molecular data indicate that Papaver labradoricum is a distinct entity and does not belong to the P. radicatum-lapponicum complex (nor to the P. dahlianum-cornwallisense complex). It should therefore be separated from P. lapponicum at the specific level and recognized as P. labradoricum. At present P. labradoricum is known from SW and W Greenland, Baffin Island, N Labrador and N Quebec, and in most of these regions it seems to be the only species of Papaver. Papaver labradoricum resembles European P. radicatum in some features (numerous and erect stems, comparatively small and not fully open flowers, capsule shape) but differs in leaf shape (lobes always narrowly ovate-lanceolate, simple and mostly diverging at a small angle from the mid axis). Molecular markes indicate that the Asian Beringian P. detritophilum is the closest relative.
(5) Plants from several sites on Banks Island were assigned to a separate and quite distinct molecular group that connects to several still taxonomically unresolved taxa in western and Beringian North America (including the Cordilleran P. kluanense) and also in Beringian Asia, especially in Wrangel Island, but is distinctly different also from these. The Banks Island plants most probably represent an undescribed species.
Provisional key to Papaver spp. (not including P. keelei)
1. Gynoecium (ovary plus stigmas) and fruit obconical, obovate, or hemispherical, broadest apically. Flowering stems ascending. Anthers 20–30. Hairs on flowering stems much longer than diameter of stem, dark brown to nearly black in upper part of flowering stem, mostly spreading - 2
1. Gynoecium and fruit broadly oblong, broadest at the middle or from the middle and upwards. Flowering stems more or less erect. Anthers 30–60. Hairs of flowering stems mostly as long as diameter of stem or shorter, brown in upper part of flowering stem, subappressed to spreading - 3
2. Gynoecium and fruit broadly obconical or hemispherical, about as broad as long. Gynoecium bristles shiny black (becoming deep brown in fruit). Leaf lobes on well developed plants more or less distant and more or less strap-shaped - P. cornwallisense
2. Gynoecium and fruit obconical or obovate, longer than broad. Gynoecium bristles dark golden brown (becoming paler in fruit). Leaf lobes on well developed plants close to each other and partly overlapping, ovate-oblong - P. dahlianum subsp. polare
3. Gynoecium and fruit obconical, as broad at top as at middle. Leaves with simple lobes (very rarely secondarily lobed); lobe pairs nearly equidistant; lobes mostly with an angle of 25–45° with blade mid axis, often distinctly pointing forwards - P. labradoricum
3. Gynoecium and fruit obovate, broader at the middle than at the top (narrowing towards the stigmatic disc). Leaves of well developed plants mostly with secondary division of some lobes; lower lobe pair(s) more distant from upper pairs; lobes mostly with an angle of 30–60° with blade mid axis, not pointing forward - 4
4. Stigmatic disc flat or slightly convex, not peaked. Hairs on flowering stems not appressed. Leaf lobes oblanceolate in outline, subacute, indistinctly narrowing at base of lobe - P. lapponicum subsp. occidentale
4. Stigmatic disc peaked. Hairs on flowering stems appressed. Leaf lobes oblong-obovate in outline, distinctly narrowing at base of lobe - P. sp. Banks
Illustrations. • Plants in habitat - Papaver dahlianum polare. High Arctic populations very often contain both yellow and white colour morphs. Papaver dahlianum subsp. polare, here treated under Papaver spp. Norway, Svalbard, Kapp Thordsen. July, 1997. Photograph by R. Elven. • Close-up of plant - P. lapponicum. Papaver lapponicum. Flowers of Papaver are heliotrophic, which means they always face the sun. Nunavut, Axel Heiberg Island, Geodetic hills. July, 1982. S. Cumbaa. No voucher. • Close-up of plant - P. labradoricum. Papaver labradoricum. Plants with leaves green to grey-green on both surfaces. The adaxial surface slightly glaucous; blade margins lobed 1–2 times with 2–3 pairs of primary lateral lobes; leaf apices frequently bristle-tipped. Flowers more than 1.5 cm diameter. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. 18 July, 1965. D.D. Bartley 122. CAN 292116. • Close-up of leaves - P. cornwallisense. Papaver cornwallisense. Leaves with strap-shaped or narrowly oblanceolate primary segments. Note soft brown hairs of scape. Nunavut, Southampton Island. Aiken and Brysting 01–079. CAN 583978. • Leaf lobing: Baffin Island - P. labradoricum. Papaver labradoricum. Leaf with relatively long petiole, and with strap-shaped or narrowly oblanceolate primary segments that are undivided. Nunavut, Baffin Island. CAN 312064. • Leaf lobing: Baffin Island - P. labradoricum. Papaver labradoricum. Note relatively long petiole, blades almost glabrous, primary lobes ovate to lanceolate, lower lobes pointing forwards. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. CAN 518114. • Leaf blade lobing: Ellesmere Island - P. lapponicum. Papaver lapponicum. Leaves sparsely hairy, with primary lobes undivided and strap-shaped, lanceolate to oblanceolate. Petioles longer than the blade. Ellesmere Island. CAN 483605. • Close-up of leaves - P. dahlianum polare. Papaver dahlianum subsp. polare. Primary leaf lobes undivided, obovate; segments all pointing forward. Nunavut, Ellesmere Island, Tanquary Fiord. CAN 582836. Murray and Yurtsev 10247 as subsp. polare. • Hairs on flowering stem - P. labradoricum. Papaver labradoricum. Scape moderately hairy with short subappressed to subpatent brown hairs. Nunavut, Baffin Island. CAN 312064. • Close-up of capsule - P. dahlianum polare. Papaver dahlianum subsp. polare. Capsule slightly obovate with stigmatic disc slightly narrower than the broadest part of the capsule. Nunavut, Ellesmere Island. CAN 483605. • Close-up of two capsules - P. dahlianum polare. Papaver dahlianum subsp. polare. Both capsules obovate, approaching sub-globose. Capsule slightly obovate with stigmatic disc as wide as the broadest part of the capsule. Nunavut, Ellesmere Island. CAN 483605. • Drawing of plant: P. dahlianum polare. P. dahlianum subsp. polare. Drawing by Mrs. S. Bergh and Mrs. L. Barstad based on a collection from Svalbard, Sørkapp Land. With permission of the Botanical Museum, University of Oslo, Norway. • Arctic Island Distribution.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..