Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
English: Bog rush,
Inuktitut: Iviit, ivisuka, ivitsuskaka.
Juncaceae, Rush family.
Published in Sp. Pl. 325. 1753.
Vegetative morphology. Plants 3–50 cm high; perennial herbs; caespitose, or not caespitose. Only fibrous roots present. Ground level or underground stems horizontal, or absent; rhizomatous, or stoloniferous; elongate, or compact. Aerial stems erect. Leaves present, or absent or leaf teeth; merely cataphylls (Juncus arcticus); mainly basal, or distributed along the stems (absent in Juncus arcticus); alternate; dying annually and non-persistent, or marcescent. Petioles absent. Sheaths present; with the margins fused only in the lower part, or with the margins not fused. Ligules absent. Leaves grass-like. Blades 30–250 mm long, 0.3–4 mm wide, straight, linear, with clasping auricles or without auricles, veins parallel, septate nodulose (imperfectly) or not septate nodulose. Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous. Blade margins glabrous; apices acuminate.
Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems circular or oval in cross section. Flowering stems with leaves, or without leaves, or without leaves in the upper half. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence present; conspicuous and leaf-like, or reduced, or scale-like; exceeding the inflorescence, or similar in length to the inflorescence. Flowers solitary, or in inflorescences (usually). Flower orientation flowers side by side in a horizontal plane, or two (or three) flowers side by side on one top of the other. Inflorescences cymose, or head-like; terminal, or lateral; dense; 0.4–6 cm long. Pedicels present, or absent. Bisexual spike(s) with empty bracts at the base, or without empty bracts at the base. Floral bracts 10–20 mm long; apices entire. Flowers per inflorescence 1–10; small, or medium-sized. Sepals conventional (brown tepals); 3; free; yellow, or brown; scarious; non-accrescent. Calyx tip not mucronate; glabrous. Petals conventional (brown tepals); free; shorter than the calyx, or same length as the calyx; 3; yellow, or brown; lanceolate; unlobed; 2.4–6.5 mm long. Stamens 6. Anthers 0.4–2.2 mm long. Ovary superior; carpels 3; syncarpous. Styles present; 3 (there is a short, fused portion at the top of the ovary); free; 0.3–1.5 mm long. Stigmas per ovary 3 (hairy, sometimes pink). Ovules per ovary 10–100 (many). Fruit sessile; with calyx persisting; dry; a capsule; ellipsoid, or ovoid, or elongate-cylindrical, or obovate; yellowish, or black, or brown; 2.5–7 mm long; 1–3 mm wide; not distinctly flattened; dehiscent. Styles persisting but not modified. Seeds 10–100; 0.4–3.5 mm long; brown; surfaces smooth.
Chromosome information. 2n = 30, or 60, or 80, or 84, or 120, or 130–134.
North American distribution. Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories Islands, continental Northwest Territories, Nunavut Islands, continental Nunavut, northern Quebec, Labrador. Range in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago widespread, or limited. Common, uncommon (Juncus trifidus).
Illustrations. • Habitat. Narrow grass-like glabrous leaves approximately 10x longer than wide. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit. 24 July, 1982. J.M. Gillett 19022. CAN. • Close-up of inflorescence. Long bract subtends inflorescence. Note open flower with three brown "petals", six yellow anthers and three, curly pink stigmas. Aiken and Brysting 01–085. CAN.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..