Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Campanula L.

English: Bluebell family, Harebell family.

Campanulaceae, Bluebell family.

Published in Sp. Pl. 163. 1753

Vegetative morphology. Plants 5–20(–30) cm high; perennial herbs. Taproot present. Roots pallid-brown. Ground level or underground stems vertical. Caudex present. Aerial stems branching from a tap at or near ground level into two or more branches, or developed; erect, or decumbent. Leaves heterophyllous, or not heterophyllous (there is a difference in shape between the lower and upper leaves); distributed along the stems; alternate; dying annually and non-persistent. Petioles present (slight), or absent; 0–12 mm long; glabrous. Leaf blade bases truncate, or attenuate. Blades 10–30(–60) mm long, (1–)2–8 mm wide, spreading, linear or lanceolate or ovate or oblanceolate, flat, veins pinnate. Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous. Blade apices acuminate, or acute.

Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems with leaves. Flowering stems glabrous. Flowers solitary (usually in Arctic Islands), or in inflorescences (continental North America, C. rotundifolia). Inflorescences paniculate; diffuse. Flowers medium-sized, or large (in full flower). Sepals conventional; 5; free; 3.5–9 mm wide; green. Calyx glabrous, or hairy. Petals conventional; fused; 5; white (rarely), or blue; with contrasting markings, or without contrasting markings; 7–20 mm long. Corolla campanulate; 5-lobed. Stamens 5; stamen filaments glabrous. Anthers yellow; long-cylindrical; (1.5–)2–2.5 mm long. Receptacle 3–10 mm high. Ovary inferior; carpels 3; syncarpous. Styles 1; (0.7–)1.1–3.5 mm long. Stigmas per ovary 3. Stigma lobes 1–2 mm long. Fruit stalked; with calyx persisting; dry; a capsule; yellowish, or black (pale), or brown; 4–20 mm long (without the calyx); 4–7 mm wide; glabrous, or hairy; dehiscent (opening by slits). Seeds 100 (numerous); 0.7–1.2 mm long; brown; surfaces smooth.

Chromosome information. 2n = 34, or 68–72, or 102.

Ploidy levels recorded 2x, 4x, and 6x.


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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