Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

DELTA Home

S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, L.J. Gillespie, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Character List

#1. <Ferns and fern allies or flowering plants>/

1. Pteridophytes (ferns and fern allies)/

2. Spermatophytes (flowering plants) /

Pteridophytes: fern and fern allies: plants forming haploid spores borne in sporangia. The spores germinate to form a prothallus where male and female gametes are developed and where sexual union occurs.

Spermatophytes: Flowering plants: those usually reproducing by flowers that develop anthers (male) and ovaries (female) in which meiosis occurs to produce haploid pollen and ovules. After fertilization, the union of the nuceus in the anther with a nucleus in an ovule, diploid seeds develop in fruits. In the Arctic several species some plants that on vegetative characters appear to be closely related to plants that do produce flowers are consider here.

#2. <Order or higher classification>/

1. Alismatales <Potamogetonaceae, Tofieldiaceae>/

2. Asparagales <Orchidaceae>/

3. Poales <Cyperaceae Juncaceae Poaceae>/

4. Eudicots: phylogenetically basal: <basal tircopates> Ranunculales <Papaveraceae, Ranunculaceae>/

5. Core Eudicots: <Proteales, Plantiginaceae>/

6. Core Eudicots: Caryophyllales <Caryophyllaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Polygonaceae, Portulaceae>/

7. Core Eudicots: Saxifragales <Crassulaceae, Haloragaceae, Saxifragaceae>/

8. Core Eudicots Eurosids 1 <Malpighiales, Linaceae, Salicaceae, Violaceae>/

9. Fabales <Fabaceae>/

10. Rosales <Rosaceae, Fagalese: Betulaceae>/

11. Core Eudicots Eurosids II/

12. Myrtales <Onagraceae>/

13. Brassicales/

14. Asterids: Euasterids 1/

15. Ericales <Diapensiaceae, Empetrum, Ericaceae, Pyrolaceae, Polemoniaceae, Primulaceae>/

16. Garryales <Boraginaceae Gentianceae>/

17. Gentianales <Gentianaceae>/

18. Laminales <Hipppuridaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Scrophulariaceae>/

19. Asterales <Asteraceae, Campanulaceae>/

Order or higher classification: as suggested by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group at www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/welcome.html

Nomenclature

#3. <Common name:>/

Common name: where available in English, French, Inuktutuk.

#4. <Family>/

1. Equisetaceae, Horsetail or Scouring rush family/

2. Lycopodiaceae, Club moss family/

3. Dryopteridaceae, Fern family/

4. Woodsiaceae, Cliff-fern family/

5. Cyperaceae, Sedge family/

6. Juncaceae, Rush family/

7. Juncaginaceae, Arrow-grass family/

8. Orchidaceae, Orchid family/

9. Poaceae, Grass family/

10. Potamogetonaceae, Pondweed family/

11. Tofieldiaceae, Tofieldia family/

12. Asteraceae (Compositae), Daisy family/

13. Betulaceae, Birch family/

14. Boraginaceae, Lungwort family/

15. Brassicaceae (Cruciferae), Draba family/

16. Campanulaceae, Bluebell family/

17. Caryophyllaceae, Pink family/

18. Crassulaceae, Stonecrop family/

19. Diapensiaceae, Diapensia family/

20. Empetraceae, Crowberry family/

21. Ericaceae, Bilberry family/

22. Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Pea family/

23. Gentianaceae, Gentian family/

24. Haloragaceae, Water-milfoil family/

25. Hippuridaceae, Mare's tail family/

26. Lentibulariaceae, Bladderwort family/

27. Linaceae, Flax family/

28. Onagraceae, Fireweed family/

29. Papaveraceae, Poppy family/

30. Plantaginaceae, Plantain family/

31. Plumbaginaceae, Leadwort family/

32. Polemoniaceae, Polemonium family/

33. Polygonaceae, Buckwheat family/

34. Portulacaceae, Purslane family/

35. Primulaceae, Primrose family/

36. Pyrolaceae, Wintergreen family/

37. Ranunculaceae, Buttercup family/

38. Rosaceae, Rose family/

39. Salicaceae, Willow family/

40. Saxifragaceae, Saxifrage family/

41. Scrophulariaceae, Fernweed family/

42. Sparganiaceae, Bur-reed family/

43. Callitrichaceae, Water starwort family/

44. Violaceae, Violet family/

Family: species are assigned to families as suggested by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group at www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/welcome.html. This sometimes varies from the family classification given in Flora North America that is based on Cronquist (1981).

#5. <Place of valid publication>/

Place of valid publication of name, is publication in accordance with Art. 32–45 or H.9 (see also Art. 61) in the International Code of Botantical Nomenclature (Greuter el al. 2000). The application of names of taxa of the rank of family or below is determined by means of nomenclatural types.

#6. Type: <specimen>/

Type specimen: by implication unless stated, a holotype. As defined by International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 2000)), the holotype of a name of a species or infraspecific taxon is the one specimen or illustration used by the author, or designated by the author as the nomenclatural type. As long as a holotype is extant, it fixes the application of the name concerned.

Lectotype: a specimen or illustration designated from the original material as the nomenclatural type in conformity with Art. 9.9 and 9.10 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature ((Greuter et al. 2000). A name is not validly published (a) when it is not accepted by the author in the original publication; (b) when it is merely proposed in anticipation of future acceptance of the group concerned, or of a particular circumscription, position or rank or the groups (so called provisional name), (c) when it is merely cited as a synonym; (d) by the mere mention of the subordinate taxa included in thee taxon concerned. It does not apply to names published with a question mark or other indication of taxonomic doubt, yet accepted by their author.

#7. <Synonymy based on type specimen>/

Synonymy based on type specimen: by implication unless stated, a holotype as defined by International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 2000))

#8. <Synonyms based on different type specimens>/

Synonymy based on different type specimen: Taxon name based on a type specimen other than that given for the accepted name.

Habit

#9. Plants <height>/

cm high/

Measure from ground level to the top of the inflorescence.

#10. Plants <habit: whether woody>/

1. herbs /

2. shrubs/

Habit: general appearance, characteristic form, or mode of growth of the plant.

Herb: a plant with no persistent or woody parts above ground.

Sub-ligneous herb. Plants that have a well developed sub-ligneous cortex, (tough but not woody stem) at, and below, ground level are considered to be herbs.

Shrub: a perennial woody plant usually with several main stems arising from or near the ground.

Small woody plants. Tiny plants, sometimes only 1–3 cm high are considered to be shrubs because they have woody (ligneous) stems.

#11. Plants <longevity>/

1. annual herbs/

2. biennial herbs/

3. perennial herbs/

Herb: a plant with no woody parts above ground.

Annual: a plant that completes its life cycle, from seed germination to seed production followed by death, within a single growing season.

Biennial: a plant that in the first growing season develops vegetatively and lays down food reserves: in the second growing season it flowers and sets seeds.

Perennial: a plant that continues growth from year to year.

#12. Plants <shrubs: habit>/

1. dwarf shrubs <0.1 m or less, e.g. S. reticulata>/

2. low shrubs <0.10–0.5 m, e.g. S. calcicola>/

3. mid shrubs <0.6–2.0 m, e.g. some S. alaxensis or S. richardsonii>/

4. tall shrubs <greater than 2.0 m, e.g. some S. planifolia or S. pulchra>/

5. trees <sometimes with several trunks, but of "tree" stature, e.g. some S. alaxensis>/

Habit: general appearance, characteristic form, or mode of growth of the plant.

Dwarf shrubs: diminutive (very small) plants usually with erect stems. The leaves and catkins may also be diminutive, but not always. Species such as Salix arctica, which is a dwarf shrub, may have dwarf stature or be prostrate but have leaves and catkins that are as large as those of tall shrubs.

#13. Plants <herbs: whether caespitose>/

1. caespitose/

2. not caespitose/

Caespitose: with several stems growing together and upward from the base in tufts; tufted.

#14. Plants <herbs: how tufted>/

1. in dense single compact tufts/

2. loosely tufted in several tufts/

#15. Plants <shrubs: vegetative reproduction from stems>/

1. not colonial /

2. forming colonies by layering/

3. forming colonies by rhizomes/

Colonial: groups of plants connected to one another by underground organs.

Layering: branches lying on the top of the ground and rooting.

Rhizomatous: mats formed from rhizomes which are horizontal underground stems.

#16. Plants <whether vegetatively proliferating>/

1. sometimes vegetatively proliferating by bulbils on stems or leaves/

2. sometimes vegetatively proliferating in inflorescences/

3. sometimes vegetatively proliferating from gemmiphores and gemmae/

4. sometimes vegetatively proliferating by fragmentation/

5. never vegetatively proliferating by bulbils on stems or leaves, in inflorescences, from gemmiphores and gemmae, or by fragmentation /

Vegetatively proliferating above ground by leafy or bulb-like structures (often associated with flowering stem or inflorescence) separating from the parent plant at an abscission zone; or by accidental fragmentation. Does not include proliferation by layering, rhizomes, or stolons.

Caution. Don't use the negative state in identification, as you can't usually be sure that an individual plant could never proliferate vegetatively by one of these methods.

#17. Plants <whether with milky juice>/

1. with milky juice/

2. without milky juice /

Milky juice: white latex substance usually only seen by cutting fresh material.

#18. Plants <whether glandular viscid>/

1. glandular viscid/

2. not glandular viscid /

Glandular viscid: plants when fresh sticky to the touch from fluid secreted by glands. Glands: small usually globular structures that store or secrete fluids.

#19. Plants jointed fertile stems <with or without pigmentation> /

1. without pigmentation/

2. with pigmentation /

Plant pigmentation: includes the green and blue green chlorophyll pigments and also the anthocyanin and carotine pigments.

Roots and ground-level or underground stems

#20. <Taproot (of herbs) presence>/

1. taproot present/

2. only fibrous roots present <taproot absent>/

Taproot: a large primary root with much smaller lateral roots.

#21. <Root comment>/

#22. Roots <external colour of dried, young material>/

1. colourless/

2. white/

3. yellow <not yellow brown>/

4. pallid-brown <includes yellow-brown>/

5. red-brown <includes dark-brown and chestnut-coloured>/

6. purple/

7. grey/

8. black/

#23. Ground level or underground stems <of herbs: whether present>/

1. horizontal <e.g. stolons and rhizomes>/

2. vertical <often branched: sometimes forming a stout caudex>/

3. absent <not conspicuously developed horizontally or vertically at, on, or below the ground>/

Horizontal: growing more or less parallel to the surface of the ground.

Horizontal stems: include rhizomes and stolons. Rhizome: an underground, horizontal stem, usually with reduced scaly leaves and adventitious roots at regularly spaced nodes. The horizontal stems often branch forming new aerial shoots.

Stolon: a horizontal stem which creeps over the surface of the ground. The end of the stolons root and vegetatively propagate new plants. Tufted plants like some grasses and sedges or compact cushion plants may have horizontal stems that are not easily seen, or always collected. This character applies to herbs, not shrubs.

Vertical: growing more or less at right angles to the surface of the ground and often branched. In dicots this is often called a caudex. The grass Leymus develops conspicuous vertical underground stems that allow it to function as a sand binding plant.

Caudex: a short main stem zone, at or below ground level. It may be unbranched or branched. It is often present in perenial plants that develop sub-ligneous tissue.

Annual plants usually have no horizontal stems.

#24. Ground level or underground stems <horizontal stems of herbs: whether rhizomes or stolons>/

1. rhizomatous <below ground-level>/

2. stoloniferous <above ground-level>/

Rhizome: an underground, horizontal stem, usually with reduced scaly leaves and adventitious roots at regularly spaced nodes.

Stolon: a horizontal stem which creeps over the surface of the ground, usually without reduced scaly leaves. The ends of the stolons root and thus vegetatively propagate new plants. e.g. Spider Saxifrage and Puccinellia ×phryganodes .

#25. Ground level or underground stems <of herbs: whether elongate>/

1. elongate/

2. compact/

Elongate: rhizomes or stolons usually more than 5 cm long.

Compact: rhizomes or stolons 1–2 cm long.

#26. Ground level or underground stems <of herbs: width>/

mm wide/

Rhizome or stolon width is measured at the widest point.

#27. Horizontal stems at ground level, branching extensively to shape plant habit as <mats or cushions>/

1. mats/

2. cushions/

#28. Ground level or underground stems scales <of herbs: presence at the base of stems or on rhizomes>/

1. present/

2. absent/

Stem scales: reduced leaf-like structures that usually have a single prominent ridge, unlike prophylls that have two such ridges.

#29. Ground level or underground stems scales <of herbs: number>/

#30. Ground level or underground stems scales <of herbs: colour>/

1. dull brown/

2. shiny black/

3. dull black/

#31. Ground level or underground stems scales <of herbs> surfaces/

1. smooth/

2. striate/

3. grooved/

Rhizome scales: reduced scale-like leaves on underground, horizontal stems.

Smooth: surface devoid of markings or ornamentation (hair types are not considered here).

Striate: with fine longitudinal lines or ridges.

Grooved: with deep longitudinal lines or ridges.

#32. Ground level or underground stems scales <of herbs: length>/

mm long/

Rhizome scales: reduced scaly leaves on underground, horizontal stems.

#33. Ground level or underground stems scales <of herbs: whether hairy>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

Rhizome scales: reduced scaly leaves on underground, horizontal stems.

Glabrous: without hairs.

#34. Caudex <of herbs: whether present>/

1. present/

2. absent /

Caudex: a short main stem zone, at or below ground level. It is often present in plants that appear to have an abrupt transition between the roots, usually a tap root and the leaves.

Aerial stems

#35. Aerial stems <development>/

1. a small transition zone between taproot and basal leaves <in plants like dandelions>/

2. branching from a tap at or near ground level into two or more branches <several members of the Fabaceae>/

3. developed <these sometimes developing flowers in the axils of leaves>/

4. not developed, fern leaves with long petioles arising from a rhizome/

5. plants aquatic without aerial stems/

Aerial: above ground level: portion of the plant surrounded by air.

Stem: the portion of the plant where internally the protoxylem points if present, are towards the centre, as opposed to the roots where internally the protoxylem points are towards the outside. The term aerial stem is used to include stem structures in Pteridophytes as well as flowering plants.

#36. Aerial stems <position>/

1. erect <aerial stems>/

2. ascending/

3. decumbent/

4. prostrate <trailing on the ground>/

Aerial stem: the portion of the plant where internally the protoxylem points if present, are towards the centre, as opposed to the roots where internally the protoxylem points are towards the outside. The term aerial stem is used to include stem structures in Pteridophytes as well as flowering plants.

Erect: a stem that is vertical from the roots, not declining or trailing.

Decumbent: a stem that lies flat on the ground but with the tip ascending.

Prostrate: a stem that lies flat on the ground.

Ascending: a stem that is sloping upwards.

Note: There are many plants in the Arctic that have a basal rosette or tuft of leaves from which a long mostly leafless stem emerges with a terminal flower or inflorescence. This is called a scape or flowering stem to distinguish it from a vegetative (leaf-bearing) stem; the vegetative stems may be very short and should be looked for within the basal rosette or tuft of leaves. In Juncus, an erect stem occurs between the rhizome and the leaf subtending the inflorescence that may be terminal or lateral. Several Arctic species of grasses have been observed to develop flowering stems that are initially prostrate but that become almost erect at anthesis, for example, some species of Puccinellia.

Trailing stem: a stem that lies flat on the ground (prostrate) and creeps but does not root. Term used to describe willows.

#37. Aerial stems <of Pteridophytes: whether jointed>/

1. conspicuously jointed with nodes covered by whorls of tiny leaf teeth fused for part of their length into sheaths that are tipped with teeth /

2. not conspicuously jointed /

Jointed: stems easily pulled apart at the nodes because of a change in the position of the stem vasculature at each node, found in the Equisetaceae.

#38. Aerial stems <whether vigorouly branching in whorls>/

1. aerial stems with numerous long branches arising in whorls/

2. aerial stems without numerous branches arising in whorls /

#39. Aerial stems <whether filiform> /

1. filiform/

2. not filiform /

Filiform: thread-like or thin wire-like.

#40. Aerial stem ridges <number; well seen in cross section>/

Ridges: raised areas that are the result of underlying sclerenchyma tissue with heavily thickened cell walls, separated by zones of less, or no underlying cell sclerenchyma.

#41. Aerial stem ridges <number relative to numbers of leaf teeth>/

1. twice as many ridges as there are leaf teeth <the ridges often with minute bumps, papillae>/

2. the same number as that of the leaf teeth at each node <the ridges often without minute bumps, papillae>/

#42. Aerial stem trichomes <whether present>/

1. present/

2. absent <glabrous>/

#43. Aerial stem trichomes <texture>/

1. stiff, scabrous or scaberulous/

2. soft <one of many forms of hairs>/

#44. Aerial stem trichomes <density>/

1. sparse/

2. dense/

#45. Aerial stem trichomes <orientation>/

1. appressed/

2. spreading/

3. erect/

4. retrorse/

Appressed: hairs at angles less than 30°.

Spreading: hairs at angles 30–60°.

Erect: hairs at 90°.

Reflexed: hairs pointing down at angles more than 90°.

Branches

#46. Branches <colour of 1- to 2-year-old shoots>/

1. yellowish/

2. grey-brown/

3. red-brown/

4. violet/

5. yellow-brown/

6. brownish/

Branch: a two year old or older vegetative shoot.

#47. Branches <whether wart-like or sessile glands present>/

1. covered with numerous, raised, large resinous wart-like glands/

2. covered with few inconspicuous sessile glands/

Resinous wart-like glands: conspicuous globular structures that secret resin. Found in Betula glandulosa.

Inconspicuous sessile glands: small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

#48. Branches <glaucescence>/

1. not glaucous <lacking waxy coating> /

2. weakly glaucous <visible when scratched, or with isolated crystals>/

3. strongly glaucous <bluish or whitish waxy coating>/

Branch: a two year old or older vegetative woody shoot.

Glaucous: covered with a whitish or bluish waxy coating (bloom), as on the surface of purple plums.

#49. Branches <general hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. glabrescent/

3. hairy/

Branch: two year old or older vegetative woody shoot

Glabrous: without hairs.

Glabrescent: initially hairy but becoming sparsely hairy of glabrous (smooth) with age.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

#50. Branches hairs <pubescence type>/

1. pilose/

2. villous/

3. tomentose/

4. woolly/

5. long-silky/

Branch a two year old or older vegetative woody shoot.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: bearing short, dense, soft, woolly hairs that are matted or tangled.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

#51. Branchlets <colour>/

1. yellow-green/

2. yellow-brown/

3. grey-brown/

4. red-brown/

5. violet/

6. brownish/

Branchlet: the current year's shoot.

#52. Branchlets <glaucescence>/

1. not glaucous <lacking any waxy coating>/

2. weakly glaucous/

3. strongly glaucous/

Branchlet: the current year's shoot.

Glaucous: covered with a whitish or bluish waxy coating (bloom), as on the surface of a plum.

Weakly Glaucous: waxy surface visible when scratched or with isolated patches of wax.

Strongly glaucous: covered with a bluish or whitish coating,

#53. Branchlets <general hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. glabrescent/

3. hairy/

Branchlet: the current year's shoot.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Glabrescent: initially hairy but becoming sparsely hairy of glabrous (smooth) with age.

#54. Branchlets <pubescence type>/

1. puberulent/

2. pubescent/

3. pilose/

4. villous/

5. tomentose/

6. woolly/

7. with short-silky hairs <less than 0.5 mm>/

8. with long-silky hairs <greater than 0.5 mm>/

9. strigose/

Branchlet: the current year's shoot.

Puberulent: minutely pubescent or downy.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: with short, dense interwoven hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

Strigose: covered with straight, stiff hairs or bristles.

#55. Branchlet hairs <density>/

1. sparse/

2. moderately dense <surface 50% visible>/

3. very dense <surface completely obscured>/

Branchlet: the current year's shoot.

#56. Branchlet hairs <orientation to surface>/

1. appressed/

2. spreading/

3. erect/

Branchlet: the current year's shoot.

Appressed: hair pressed close or flat against the surface.

Fish-hook curved: shaped, from the surface, as a fish hook.

Spreading: hair standing out from the surface.

#57. <Salix> buds <type, according to size, shape, and position> /

1. alba-type <uniform size and shape, vegetative and reproductive buds not distinguishable>/

2. arctica-type <apical buds large, followed by abruptly smaller set of buds>/

3. caprea-type <vegetative and reproductive buds very different, reproductive toward tip, vegetative below>/

4. transitional type <indeterminate>/

Three general types of bud size and shape gradation along the branchlet are recognized (Skvortsov 1999). The three bud gradation types are relatively distinct but there are intermediate conditions. Type 1 (alba-type). Plants with alba-type bud gradation have buds that are very similar in size and shape along the length of the branchlet. Floral and vegetative buds cannot be distinguished by size or shape. The two distal buds are usually smaller, the third to seventh buds are the largest, and the next gradually decrease in size toward the branchlet's proximal end. Type 2 (arctica-type). Plants with arctica- type bud gradation usually have few buds. The two or three (sometimes up to five) distal buds are the largest (although the first bud may be slightly smaller), after that there is an abrupt change in bud size toward the proximal end. Usually only the larger, distalmost buds open in the spring. These buds may be either floral or vegetative. Type 3 (caprea-type). Plants with caprea-type bud gradation are characterized by floral buds that are strikingly different in size and shape (and sometimes color) from vegetative buds. The distal two or three buds are usually vegetative, the next three to six (or more) buds mainly are large floral buds, intermixed with them may be one or two smaller vegetative buds. Following the zone of floral buds there is an abrupt decrease in bud size that continues to decrease toward the branchlet's proximal end. Type 4 (indeterminate) do not easily fit into the first three types.

Leaves

#58. Leaves <presence>/

1. present <green and conspicuous as leaves> /

2. absent or leaf teeth <reduced or scale-like, structures in the Equisetaceae>/

Leaves: structures arising from a stem that have a bud in the upper axis between the stem and the leaf. Branches have no such bud. The buds may give rise to lateral branches or flowers.

Leaf teeth: term used in the Flora of North America for structures that maybe green, brown or transparent and resemble a scale. They occur in whorls at the nodes of stems or branches in the Equisetaceae. Lateral branches in the Equisetaceae arise below the leaf teeth. In higher plants they arise from a bud born in the axis of a leaf.

#59. Leaves <description if reduced and scale-like>/

1. leaf teeth/

2. merely cataphylls <e.g. Juncus arcticus>/

3. merely achlorophyllous sheathing scales <Orchidaceae>/

Leaf teeth: term used in the Flora of North America for structures that maybe green, brown or transparent and resemble a scale. They occur in whorls at the nodes of stems or branches in the Equisetaceae. Lateral branches in the Equisetaceae arise below the leaf teeth. In higher plants they arise from a bud born in the axis of a leaf.

Cataphyll: a sheath that lacks blades usually at the base of the shoots: probably only occurring in shoots that are extravaginally derived. Cataphylls and prophylls are homologous.

Achlorophyllous: lacking plant pigments; not green.

#60. Leaves <heterophyllous>/

1. heterophyllous /

2. not heterophyllous /

Heterophyllous: having different shapes or textures of leaves on the same plant. Leaves are recorded as heterophyllous if they differ in the number of lobes on the basal leaves and the flowering stem leaves.

#61. Leaves <position>/

1. mainly basal <but not in a rosette>/

2. distributed along the stems/

3. arising singly from creeping rhizomes/

4. basal in a rosette/

Mostly basal:

vertical, or somewhat vertical leaves clustered at the base of the plant with conspicuously few leaves along the stems.

Basal rosette: a dense radiating cluster of leaves prostrate or near horizontal at or ground level.

: Distributed along the stems: leaves numerous or all on the vertical stems.

#62. Leaves <position: erect or patent>/

1. patent/

2. erect/

Patent: expanded or spreading. In Taraxacum those plants with leaves prostrate or almost prostrate on the ground.

#63. Leaves <attachment>/

1. alternate/

2. opposite/

3. whorled/

Alternate: a form of leaf arrangement in which there is one leaf at each node. The leaves may or may not alternate up the stem; often they are arranged at different angles at 3–5 successive nodes up the stem before one leaf is directly on top of another. The leaves are neither manifestly ‘opposite’ nor genuinely whorled. This is a loose term in widespread taxonomic usage, reflecting failure to describe phyllotaxy more precisely.

Opposite: a form of leaf arrangement in which the leaves arise in pairs at each node. The members of each pair on the same level as one another and on opposite sides of the stem

Whorled: a form of leaf arrangement in which three or more leaves arise at each node.

#64. Leaves <whether distichous>/

1. distinctly distichous/

2. not distinctly distichous /

Distichous: two ranked; in two rows so that the leaves are in approximately the same plane.

#65. Leaves <persistence>/

1. persistent <living through the winter>/

2. dying annually and non-persistent <including deciduous>/

3. marcescent/

Persistent: having leaves that persist through the winter. Often in Arctic plants green pigmentation in particular fades in the fall so that leaves may appear red or very pale. Pigmentation is restored in the spring and active growth is resumed.

Annual: all the leaves are alive for one summer season only and do not persist as an accumulation at the base of the plant in the next seasons. This includes deciduous leaves which fall from an abscission layer.

Marcescent: having leaves that are withered, dry, possibly brown, and remaining attached to the plant. This may be important in protecting and reducing water loss in plants.

#66. Leaf teeth persistence/

1. persistent <living through the winter>/

2. annual, dying at the end of the first season/

3. marcescent/

#67. Prophylls <length>/

mm long/

Prophyll: the first leaf of a lateral shoot. It is a leaf sheath with two pronounced veins. Subsequently produced sheaths without blades are cataphylls. These may be recognized because they have more than two pronounced veins.

Cataphyll: a sheath that lacks blades usually at the base of the shoots: probably only occurring in shoots that are extravaginally derived. Cataphylls and prophylls are homologous.

#68. Prophylls <features of the veins>/

1. with smooth veins/

2. with scabrous veins/

3. with hairy veins/

Prophyll: the first leaf of a lateral shoot. It is a leaf sheath with two pronounced veins from underlying vascular bundles.

Smooth: devoid of any trichomes.

Trichomes: hairs or hair-like outgrowths, that may be scabrous (stiff) or pubescent (soft).

Scabrous: rough to the touch because of small, stiff, bristly, prickle-hairs on the surface.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

#69. Prophylls <presence of pronounced keels>/

1. with pronounced keels/

2. lacking pronounced keels/

Prophyll: the first leaf of a lateral shoot. It is a leaf sheath with two pronounced veins. Sometimes subsequently produced sheaths without blades may be misinterpreted as prophylls. These may be recognized by having more than two pronounced veins.

Keel: a raised or pronounced ridge that is V-shaped.

Stipules

#70. Stipules <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent /

Stipules: a pair of appendages at the base of the petiole (the stalk that attaches the leaf to the stem). Stipules protect a leaf in bud. They are often deciduous, leaving a stipule scar after falling off.

Note: To determine if stipules are present check immature leaves (where they should be obvious) or look for stipule scars at the base of mature leaves.

#71. Stipules on first leaves <presence>/

1. absent/

2. rudimentary/

3. foliaceous/

Rudimentary: reduced scale-like structures.

Foliaceous: small but green and leaf-like structures.

#72. Stipules on leaves formed later in the <current> season <presence>/

1. absent/

2. rudimentary/

3. foliaceous/

#73. Stipules <persistence>/

1. early deciduous/

2. deciduous in autumn/

3. persisting for 2 or more years/

4. marcescent/

Caducous: falling early before the fruit is mature.

Deciduous: falling when the fruit is mature.

#74. Stipules <length, measure entire stipule including parts merged with the petiole>/

mm long/

Stipule: one of a pair of appendages found at the base of the petiole (the stalk that attaches the leaf to the stem).

#75. Stipules <width>/

mm wide/

Stipule: one of a pair of appendages found at the base of the petiole (the stalk that attaches the leaf to the stem).

#76. Stipules <sheathing>/

1. sheathing <ocreate as in Rumex or connate as in Astragalus>/

2. not sheathing /

Stipule: one of a pair of appendages found at the base of the petiole (the stalk that attaches the leaf to the stem).

Sheathing: the stipules form a tube around the stem.

Ocrea (=Ocreate): a tubular stipule, or pair of opposite stipules forming a tube.

Connate: stipules united at the base only in pairs around the petiole: not forming a tube.

#77. Stipules <colour>/

1. brown/

2. green/

3. white/

4. colourless/

5. pink or reddish/

6. black from hairs/

Glabrous: without hairs.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

#78. Stipules <whether hairy>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

Stipule: one of a pair of appendages found at the base of the petiole (the stalk that attaches the leaf to the stem).

#79. Stipules <surface pubescence>/

1. puberulent/

2. pubescent/

3. pilose/

4. villous/

5. tomentose/

6. woolly/

7. short-silky <less than 0.5 mm>/

8. long-silky <greater than 0.5 mm>/

9. strigose/

Puberulent: minutely pubescent or downy.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: with short, dense interwoven hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

Strigose: covered with straight, stiff hairs or bristles.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature, medial leaf on a mature shoot.

#80. Stipules <whether glandular>/

1. glandular/

2. without glands /

Glandular: having glands. Glands: small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

#81. Stipules apex <shape>/

1. acuminate/

2. acute/

3. rounded/

4. truncate/

5. obtuse/

6. dentate/

Stipule is one of a pair of appendages at the base of the petiole (the stalk that attaches the leaf to the stem). Stipules are often deciduous, leaving a stipule scar after falling off.

Acuminate: gradually tapering to a sharp point and forming concave sides along the tip.

Acute: tapering to a point with an angle of 45–90 degrees.

Obtuse: at an angle of more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees.

Rounded: a rounded apex, approximately 180°

Dentate: with teeth-like tips.

Truncate: apical region flat.

Petiole

#82. Petioles <presence>/

1. present /

2. absent/

This character refers to leaves on vegetative stems.

Petiole: the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

#83. Petioles <length>/

mm long/

This character refers to the leaves on the vegetative stems.

Petiole: the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature, medial leaf on a mature shoot.

#84. Petioles <length relative to the blade>/

1. approximately half the length of the blade/

2. half to three quarters the length of the blade/

This character refers to the leaves on the vegetative stems.

Petiole: the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature, medial leaf on a mature shoot.

#85. Petioles <whether winged>/

1. winged/

2. not winged/

Petiole: the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

Winged: petioles with a laminar surface present as a narrow wing on either side.

#86. Petioles <presence of sessile glands>/

1. with sessile glands/

2. without sessile glands /

Glands: small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

#87. Petioles <cross-section at midpoint>/

1. convex to flat in cross section/

2. shallowly concave in cross section/

3. deeply concave in cross section <but margins not covering the groove>/

4. deeply concave in cross section, margins covering groove <e.g. some S. reticulata or S. richardsonii>/

5. flat/

Petiole: the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature, medial leaf on a mature shoot.

#88. Petioles <general hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

3. glabrescent/

Petiole: the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Glabrescent: initially hairy but becoming sparsely hairy of glabrous (smooth) with age. Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

Scales: reduced leaf-like structures, several cells wide.

#89. Petioles <surface pubescence type>/

1. puberulent/

2. pubescent/

3. pilose/

4. villous/

5. tomentose/

6. woolly/

7. short-silky <less than 0.5 mm>/

8. long-silky <greater than 0.5 mm>/

9. strigose/

Petiole: the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem. In Salix specimens this refers to the adaxial surface in particular.

Puberulent: minutely pubescent or downy.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: with short, dense interwoven hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

Strigose: covered with straight, stiff hairs or bristles.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature, medial leaf on a mature shoot.

#90. Petiole hairs <length compared to petiole diameter>/

1. shorter than the diameter of the petiole/

2. longer than the diameter of the petiole/

#91. Petiole hairs <position>/

1. appressed/

2. spreading/

3. erect/

4. reflexed/

Appressed: growing at an angle of less than 10 degrees from the culm.

Spreading: at an angle of 10–80 degrees from the culm.

Erect: at an angle of 80–90 degrees from the culm.

Reflexed: the angle is greater than 90 degrees.

#92. Petiole hairs <adaxial hairs shape>/

1. straight/

2. floccose/

3. curved/

4. wavy/

5. crispate/

Straight: hairs that are not curved, wavy, or tufted.

Floccose: with tufts of soft woolly hairs that often rub off easily. Floccose hairs are flat, irregularly turned, twisted, or felted and appressed to the surface. The hairs are usually so long and intertwined that it is impossible to tell where a single hair begins or ends. They often form a dense tomentum on the lower leaf surface and petiole but may also occur scattered on the peduncle and inflorescences axes.

Curved: hairs with a loose curl to 45–120°.

Wavy: with more than one loose curl, like a wave. Crispate hairs: are unicellular, and less than 1 mm long. The more or less individual hairs are terete, very often in a corkscrew-like fashion. They may form a tomentum on the lower leaf surface, or the petiole and sometimes they make the peduncle appear villous. Among our species, such hairs characterize P. pulchella, P. rubricaulis s. lat. and P. vahliana.

#93. Petiole hairs <hair surfaces>/

1. smooth/

2. rough/

#94. Sheaths <presence at the base of the leaves>/

1. present/

2. absent /

Sheaths

#95. Sheaths <longevity>/

1. persisting/

2. breaking down into fibres/

Sheath: the lower portion of the leaf, which encloses the stem.

#96. Sheaths <build up at base of plant>/

1. forming a conspicuous build-up at the base of the plant /

2. not forming a conspicuous build-up at the base of the plant /

Persisting: sheaths not breaking down into fibres.

Breaking down into fibres: the tissue between the vascular bundles disintegrating, usually in the first growing season, to leave the vascular bundles as fibres.

#97. Sheaths <colour>/

1. greyish brown/

2. brown/

3. green/

4. reddish orange /

5. straw-coloured pale yellow/

6. purple/

#98. Sheaths <whether margins are fused>/

1. with the margins fused to the apex/

2. with the margins fused only in the lower part/

3. with the margins not fused/

Sheath: the lower portion of the leaf, which encloses the stem.

Margins fused to the apex: the sheath is a hollow tube that often looks like a V-necked sweater at the apex.

Margins fused only in the lower part: the margins or the tube are free and usually overlap in the upper part.

Most Arctic grasses have state 2. Tropical grasses often have state 3.

#99. Sheaths <surface features>/

1. glabrous/

2. with trichomes/

Sheath: the lower portion of the leaf, which encloses the stem.

Trichome: any hair or hair-like outgrowth of the epidermis.

#100. Sheaths <type of trichomes>/

1. pubescent/

2. hirsute/

3. scabrous/

Sheath: the lower portion of the leaf, which encloses the stem.

Pubescent: covered with soft, downy hairs.

Hirsute: covered with rather coarse and stiff hairs, these long, straight, and erect or ascending.

Scabrous: rough to the touch, usually because of the presence of small prickle-hairs on the surface.

#101. Sheath collars <whether present consider adaxial surface>/

1. present <sheath abruptly contracted into the blade at a line>/

2. absent <sheath, if present, tapering into the blade> /

Sheath: the lower portion of the leaf, which encloses the stem. Collar: the narrow area on the outer side of a leaf at the junction of the sheath and the blade.

Tapering into the blade: the transition between sheath and blade is gradual and there is no obvious collar.

Abruptly contracted into the blade: The transition between sheath and blade occurs in distinct and a narrow collar.

Ligules

#102. Ligules <presence, monocots>/

1. present/

2. absent /

Ligule: the membranous projection at the junction of the sheath and blade of the leaf found in Monocots.

#103. Ligules <length>/

mm long/

Ligule: measure at the longest point which may not always be in the middle. Ligule: the membranous projection at the junction of the sheath and blade of the leaf found in Monocots.

#104. Ligules <type>/

1. membranous/

2. a fringed membrane/

Ligule: the membranous projection at the junction of the sheath and blade of the leaf found in Monocots.

Membranous: thin, soft, flexible, more or less translucent material, lacking a fringe of trichomes (hairs) on the margin.

Trichomes: hairs or hair-like outgrowths, that may be scabrous (stiff) or pubescent (soft)

Fringed membrane: a membrane having a fringe of trichomes on the margin.

#105. Ligules <whether hairy>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

Ligule: the membranous projection at the junction of the sheath and blade of the leaf.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

#106. Ligules <shape>/

1. linear/

2. lanceolate/

3. ovate-oblong/

4. transversely oblong <long rectangular>/

Ligule: the membranous projection at the junction of the sheath and blade of the leaf.

Linear: resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Ovate-oblong: rectangular in outline, but slightly broader at one end, and attached at the broad end.

Transversely oblong: in the shape of a rectangle, attached at the long side.

#107. Ligule apices <shape of the apical region>/

1. acuminate/

2. acute/

3. obtuse/

4. truncate/

Ligule: the membranous projection at the junction of the sheath and blade of the leaf.

Acuminate: apical region with sides somewhat concave, tapering to an extended point.

Acute: tapering to a point with an angle of 45–90 degrees.

Obtuse: at an angle of more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees.

Truncate: apical region flat.

#108. Ligule apices <whether entire>/

1. entire/

2. erose/

3. lacerate/

4. cleft/

Ligule: the membranous projection at the junction of the sheath and blade of the leaf.

Entire: not toothed, notched, or divided, as the continuous margins of some leaves.

Erose: irregularly and shallowly toothed as if gnawed.

Lacerate: cut irregularly, as if torn.

Cleft: incised at the midpoint to produce lobes.

Juvenile leaves

#109. Juvenile leaves <colour of unfolding leaves>/

1. reddish/

2. yellowish green/

Juvenile leaves: young leaves that are just unfolding.

#110. Juvenile leaves <general hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

Juvenile leaf: young leaf

Glabrous: without hairs. Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

#111. Juvenile leaves abaxial <lower> surfaces <pubescence type>/

1. puberulent/

2. pubescent/

3. pilose/

4. villous/

5. tomentose/

6. woolly/

7. hairs short-silky <less than 0.5 mm>/

8. hairs long-silky <greater than 0.5 mm>/

9. strigose/

Juvenile leaves: young leaves that are just unfolding.

Puberulent: minutely pubescent or downy.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: with short, dense interwoven hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

Strigose: covered with straight, stiff hairs or bristles.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature, medial leaf on the shoot.

#112. Juvenile leaves abaxial hairs <density>/

1. sparse/

2. moderately dense <surface 50% visible>/

3. very dense <surface completely obscured>/

Juvenile leaves: young leaves that are just unfolding.

#113. Juvenile leaves abaxial hairs <colour>/

1. white/

2. grey/

Juvenile leaves: young leaves that are just unfolding.

Leaf blades

#114. Leaf blades <simple or compound>/

1. simple /

2. compound <including fern fronds>/

Simple leaf: a leaf blade that is not separated into leaflets, even though the blade may be deeply lobed or cleft.

Compound leaf: a leaf blade that is separated into two or more distinct leaflets.

Frond: the leaf-like structure of a fern consisting of a central rachis and pinnae, leaflet-like blades that may be further pinnately divided.

#115. Leaf colouration/

1. discolorous, distinctly pale on the lower surface/

2. concolorous, approximately the same colour on both surfaces/

Whether leaves are discolorous is often very difficult to determine on poorly dried herbarium specimens.

#116. <Simple> leaf blade bases <shape>/

1. cordate/

2. truncate/

3. obtuse/

4. cuneate/

5. attenuate/

6. rounded/

7. hastate/

This character refers to the leaves on the vegetative stems.

Base: the end of the leaf blade nearest to the point of attachment.

Cordate: heart-shaped, with the notch at the base.

Truncate: apical region flat.

Obtuse: at an angle of more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees.

Acute: tapering to a point with an angle of 45–90 degrees.

Cuneate: wedge-shaped, triangular; pie-shaped.

Attenuate: tapering gradually to a narrow base.

Rounded: with a rounded base.

Hastate: with two pointed lobes projecting at the base.

#117. Leaves <whether grass-like>/

1. grass-like <simple, usually 10 times or more longer than wide, veins parallel>/

2. not grass-like <simple and less than 10 times longer than wide, or compound, veins pinnate, palmate, reticulate> /

#118. Leaf teeth <height>/

mm/

#119. Leaf teeth <width>/

mm/

#120. <Simple or compound leaf> blades <length excluding petiole>/

mm long/

This character refers to the leaves on the vegetative stems. The length of the leaf blade is measured from the tip of the leaf blade to the top of the petiole.

Petiole: the stalk that attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature leaf on a mature shoot.

#121. <Leaf or leaflet> blades length-width ratio/

This character refers to the leaves on the vegetative stems. The width of the leaf blade is measured at the widest point of the leaf blade. Width is measured as seen to the naked eye: actual width on a flat leaf, approximately half the true width of a folded leaf. With compound leaves the width is measured between the tips of adjacent leaflets in the middle of the leaf.

#122. <Simple or compound leaf> blades <total width>/

mm wide/

To measure leaf shape determine the leaf length and width, then calculate the length/width ratios.

#123. <Leaf or leaflet> blades <orientation>/

1. appressed to the stem/

2. spreading/

3. divaricate/

4. reflexed/

Appressed: growing at an angle of less than 10 degrees from the culm or stem.

Spreading: at an angle of 10–80 degrees from the culm or stem.

Divaricate: at an angle of 80–90 degrees from the culm.

Reflexed: the angle is greater than 90 degrees.

#124. Leaves <whether filiform>/

1. filiform <very narrow, sometimes wiry like>/

2. not filiform /

#125. Leaf appearance in Lycopodium/

1. appressed leaves with ultimate branches strictly four ranked, alternate decussate, with every pair decurrent on the stem as a pair of flanges and each flange continuous with one margin of the leaf/

2. spreading and crowded in pseudo-whorls/

#126. <Leaf or leaflet> blades <appearance>/

1. straight /

2. somewhat curled/

3. circinate when young/

Straight: this characters was developed for Pteridophytes and Monocots. It is not intended for general use in the Dicots. Somewhat curled: leaves curved or curled away from vertical.

Circinate: coiled from the top downwards, into a ring or partially so.

#127. <Leaf or leaflet> blades <usually ferns or monocots, vernation>/

1. rolled in bud/

2. folded in bud/

Rolled in Bud: leaf margins overlapping.

Folded in bud: leaf margins touching.

#128. <Simple leaf> blades <shape> <see Notes>/

1. linear/

2. oblong/

3. elliptic/

4. circular/

5. lanceolate/

6. ovate/

7. oblanceolate/

8. obovate/

9. spatulate/

10. reniform/

11. triangular/

12. lyrate/

This character refers to the leaves on the lower part of the vegetative stems. In identification, if you can't decide between several states, select them all.

Linear: resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

Elliptic: in the shape of an ellipse, or a narrow oval; broadest at the middle and narrower at the two equal ends.

Circular: approximately circular in outline.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Oblanceolate: inversely lanceolate, with the widest point above the middle.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrower end.

Spatulate: spoon-shaped, with a rounded blade above gradually tapering to the base.

Reniform: kidney shaped.

Triangular or deltoid: shaped like an equilateral or Isosceles triangle.

Lyrate: a pinnatifid leaf in which the terminal lobe is large and rounded and the lower and lateral lobes are smaller.

#129. <Leaf> blades <Monocots, presence of auricles>/

1. with sheath auricles <erect swellings>/

2. with clasping auricles/

3. without auricles /

Auricle: an appendage of various shapes, often ear shaped, found at the junction of the leaf blade and sheath.

Blade auricles: are found at the base of a leaf blade and usually at right angles to it.

Clasping auricles: occur at the apex of the sheath, are usually erect and parallel with the sheath. They are usually adnate to ligule,so that the ligules are higher on the sides than in the centre.

#130. <Simple leaf> blades <shape in cross section; mainly for monocots>/

1. circular in cross section/

2. flat/

3. bristle-like/

4. strongly keeled/

5. involute/

6. revolute/

7. folded/

8. channelled <canaliculate>/

9. convolute/

Circular: outline of a transverse section of the leaf is a circle.

Flat: the transverse section in one plane.

Bristle-like: thin and stiff like a bristle.

Involute: with margins rolled inwards.

Revolute: with margins rolled outwards.

Strongly keeled: with a prominent midvein.

Folded: leaves V-shaped or loosely curved in cross section, margins more or less parallel to each other.

Folded or conduplicate: folded so that the sides face each other.

Caniculate: leaves essentially circular in cross-section with a groove running down the adaxial surface.

Convolute: overlapping with one edge and curled inwards.

#131. <Leaf or leaflet> blades <venation pattern>/

1. veins pinnate/

2. with three main veins <tri-nerved>/

3. veins palmate/

4. veins parallel/

5. veins reticulate/

6. appearing single-veined/

7. with inconspicuous veins/

Venation: the pattern of veining on a leaf blade, usually most easily seen on the lower surface of the leaf.

Pinnate: a pattern of venation with veins arranged on opposite sides of one main vein.

Tri-nerved: appearing to have three nerves arising from near the base.

Palmate: a pattern of venation with veins radiating from a common point, like the fingers on a hand.

Parallel: a pattern of venation with main veins parallel to the leaf axis or to each other.

Appearing one-veined: a pattern of venation where one vein is conspicuous; other veins may be present but they are not easily seen.

Reticulate: with a network pattern.

#132. <Leaf or leaflet> blades <grasses, midvein size>/

1. midvein conspicuously larger than the lateral veins/

2. midvein similar in size to other veins in the leaf/

Midvein: the central vein (nerve) of a leaf.

#133. <Leaf or leaflet> blades <usually grasses, presence or absence of bulliform cells associated with the midvein>/

1. bulliform cells in distinct rows on either side of the midvein/

2. without bulliform cells in a distinct row on either side of the midvein /

3. bulliform cells in a single row above the midvein resulting in the leaf looking longitudinally channelled/

Bulliform cells: usually large, thin-walled, highly vacuolated, colourless epidermal cells present in the intercostal zones of the leaf blade. These are most commonly present at the base of furrows on the adaxial surface, but may also be present on the abaxial surface. They may be visible as clear lines down either side of the midvein.

#134. <Leaf or leaflet> blades <whether septate nodulose>/

1. septate nodulose/

2. not septate nodulose /

Septate nodulose: having raised, prominent end walls to cells.

Leaf-blade surfaces

#135. <Leaf or leaflet> blade adaxial <upper> surface <lustre>/

1. dull /

2. fresh green/

3. shiny/

4. highly glossy/

5. glaucous/

Dull: with a surface similar to that of flat paint.

Shiny: with a surface similar to semi-gloss paint.

Highly glossy: with a surface similar to high gloss paint.

Glaucous: covered with a whitish or bluish waxy coating (bloom), as on the surface of a plum.

#136. <Leaf or leaflet> blade adaxial <upper> surface <sessile glands>/

1. with sessile glands/

2. without sessile glands /

3. with short stalked glands/

Sessile glands: small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

#137. <Leaf or leaflet> blade adaxial <upper> surface <hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. glabrescent <becoming glabrous, usually sparsely hairy>/

3. scabrous/

4. hairy/

Adaxially: on the side facing the main axis of the plant, i.e. the upper surface of the leaf.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

Glabrescent: initially hairy but becoming sparsely hairy of glabrous (smooth) with age.

Scabrous: rough to the touch because of small, stiff, bristly, prickle-hairs on the surface.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

#138. <Leaf or leaflet> blade adaxial <upper> surface hairs <pubescence type>/

1. puberulent/

2. pubescent/

3. pilose/

4. villous/

5. tomentose/

6. woolly/

7. short-silky <hairs less than 0.5 mm>/

8. long-silky <hairs greater than 0.5 mm>/

9. strigose/

Puberulent: minutely pubescent or downy.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: with short, dense interwoven hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

Strigose: covered with straight, stiff hairs or bristles.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature, medial leaf on a mature shoot.

#139. <Leaf or leaflet> blade adaxial <upper> surface hairs <type>/

1. simple <unbranched without glands>/

2. branched/

3. glandular/

4. stellate/

Glandular: having glands. Glands: small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

Stellate: hairs arranged in the form of stars, with several to many branches radiating from the base.

Branched: with two or more forking divisions.

#140. <Leaf or leaflet> blade adaxial <upper> surface hairs <density>/

1. sparse/

2. moderately dense <surface 50% visible>/

3. dense/

#141. <Leaf or leaflet> blade adaxial <upper> surface hairs <hair colour>/

1. white, or translucent/

2. grey/

3. a mixture of white and rust-coloured hairs/

4. a mixture of white and yellow hairs/

5. multicellular with deep purple pigment at the cell end walls/

6. tawny/

#142. Leaf teeth <abaxial surface shiny or dull>/

1. dull with pale centres and dark brown margins/

2. dull and black/

3. shiny black or brown/

#143. <Leaf or leaflet> blade abaxial <lower> surface <lustre>/

1. dull /

2. shiny/

3. highly glossy/

Dull: with a surface similar to that of flat paint.

Shiny: with a surface similar to semi-gloss paint.

Highly glossy: with a surface similar to high gloss paint.

Glaucous: covered with a whitish or bluish waxy coating (bloom), as on the surface of a plum.

#144. <Leaf or leaflet> blade abaxial <lower> surface <glaucescence or waxy bloom>/

1. glaucous/

2. not glaucous /

Glaucous: covered with a whitish or bluish waxy coating (bloom), as on the surface of a plum.

#145. <Leaf or leaflet> blade abaxial <lower> surface <sessile glands>/

1. with sessile glands/

2. without sessile glands or glandular hairs /

3. with glandular hairs/

Sessile glands: small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

#146. <Leaf or leaflet> blade abaxial <lower> surface <hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. glabrescent/

3. scabrous/

4. hairy/

5. scaly/

Abaxially: on the side facing away from the main axis of the plant, i.e. the underside of the leaf.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Glabrescent: initially hairy but becoming sparsely hairy of glabrous (smooth) with age.

Scabrous: rough to the touch because of small, stiff, bristly, prickle-hairs on the surface.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

Scaly: small flakes like fish scales.

#147. <Leaf or leaflet> blade abaxial <lower> surface hairs <pubescence type>/

1. puberulent/

2. pubescent/

3. pilose/

4. villous/

5. tomentose/

6. woolly/

7. short-silky <less than 0.5 mm>/

8. long-silky <greater than 0.5 mm>/

9. strigose/

Puberulent: minutely pubescent or downy.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: with short, dense interwoven hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

Strigose: covered with straight, stiff hairs or bristles.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature, medial leaf on a mature shoot.

#148. <Leaf or leaflet> blade abaxial <lower> surface hairs <density>/

1. sparse/

2. moderately dense/

3. very dense/

Sparse: surface mostly visible.

Moderately dense: surface about 50% visible.

Dense: surface completely obscured.

#149. <Leaf or leaflet> blade abaxial <lower> surface hairs <hair colour>/

1. white <translucent>/

2. rust-coloured/

3. a mixture of white and rust-coloured/

4. a mixture of white and yellow/

#150. <Leaf or leaflet> blade abaxial <lower> surface hairs <shape>/

1. straight/

2. curved/

3. wavy/

4. irregularly branched/

5. stellate/

Straight: hairs that are not curved, wavy, or tufted.

Curved: hairs with a loose curl to 45–120°.

Wavy: with more than one loose curl, like a wave.

#151. <Leaf or leaflet> blade abaxial <lower> surface hairs <orientation>/

1. appressed/

2. spreading/

3. erect/

Appressed: hair pressed close or flat against the branchlet.

Spreading: hair standing out from the surface.

Erect: hair vertical, not declining or spreading.

Leaf-blade margins

#152. <Simple leaf> blade margins <whether revolute, based on largest medial leaves>/

1. flat /

2. slightly revolute/

3. strongly revolute/

#153. <Simple or compound> blades <whether lobed or cut into linear divisions>/

1. lobed/

2. not lobed /

3. cut into linear divisions/

Lobed: bearing lobes cut less than half way to the base.

Linear divisions: leaf divided into lobes that are cut more than half way to the base.

#154. Leaf primary lobes/

1. mostly undivided or with mostly simple primary lobes/

2. mostly divided, with more than 5 primary lobes/

#155. Leaf primary lobes <shape>/

1. ovate-lanceolate to obovate-lanceolate/

2. narrowly oblanceolate/

3. strap-shaped to narrowly spathulate-obovate/

#156. Leaf primary lobes <orientation>/

1. all lobes pointing forwards/

2. the lower pair of lobes strongly divergent/

#157. <Simple or compound> blade margins <toothing or rolling>/

1. entire /

2. glandular-dotted/

3. serrulate/

4. serrate/

5. crenate/

6. dentate/

7. deeply divided/

8. runcinate/

9. revolute/

Margin: the edge of the leaf blade.

Entire: not toothed, notched, or divided, as the continuous margins of some leaves.

Glandular-dotted: margins are entire but there are glandular dots. glands small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

Serrulate: minute, sharp teeth pointing forward.

Crenate: rounded teeth, scalloped along the margin.

Serrate: sharp large teeth pointing forward.

Dentate: or toothed, a leaf margin with sharp teeth or indentations pointing outwards at right angles to the midrib.

Deeply divided: Leaf blade with divisions cut more than half way to the base; these may sometimes be mistaken for compound leaves as in Myriophyllum.

Runcinate: sharply incised with the segments directed backwards.

#158. <Simple or compound> blade margins with <number of glands per cm>/

glands per cm/

#159. <Simple or compound> blade margins <whether hairy>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. with non-glandular hairs/

4. with glandular hairs/

Glabrous: without hairs or scabrous trichomes.

Scabrous: rough to the touch because of small, stiff, bristly, prickle-hairs on the surface.

Trichomes: hairs or hair-like outgrowths, that may be scabrous (stiff) or pubescent (soft)

Non-glandular: with soft textured usually straight hairs without silica, or globular end glands.

Glandular hairs: hairs that have often glands on the ends. Glands small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

#160. <Leaf or leaflet> blade margins with <number of teeth of a leaf or the apical leaflet>/

teeth on each side of the blade/

Teeth: sharp pointed structures like a saw or sharks teeth.

#161. <Simple or compound> blade margins with teeth <position>/

1. all around the blade/

2. toward the base/

3. toward the apex/

Margin refers to the edge of the leaf blade.

Teeth: sharp pointed structures like a saw or sharks teeth.

#162. <Simple or compound> blade margins with <number of teeth> teeth per cm/

Margin refers to the edge of the leaf blade.

Teeth: sharp pointed structures like a saw or sharks teeth.

#163. <Leaf or leaflet> blade margins degree of incision <as a percentage. previously, 1. less than 10% 2. 20–25% 3. 25–50% 4. 50–75% 5. more than 75%>/

%/

#164. Hydathodes <presence>/

1. present and conspicuous <visible to the naked eye>/

2. present but inconspicuous <visible at 10x but not easily to the naked eye>/

3. absent /

Hydathodes: specialized pores (small openings) at the end of veins. They exude water and dissolved minerals, which may sometimes be seen as annular white deposits up to 5 mm in diameter, as in Saxifraga oppositifolia. The deposits are washed off by rain and snow.

Conspicuous: 0.12–0.2 mm in diameter, visible to the naked eye.

Inconspicuous: 0.05–0.12 mm in diameter, visible at 10x.

#165. <Simple or compound> blade apices <tip shape, tip of uppermost leaflet in a compound leaf>/

1. acuminate/

2. acute/

3. obtuse/

4. rounded/

5. retuse/

This character refers to the leaves on the vegetative stems.

Apex, (plural Apices): the tip; the farthest point of attachment of the leaf to the stem.

Acuminate: gradually tapering to a sharp point at an angle of less than 45 degrees usually forming concave sides along the tip.

Acute: tapering to a point with an angle of 45–90 degrees.

Obtuse: at an angle of more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees.

Rounded: a rounded apex.

Retruse: with a shallow notch in a round or blunt apex.

Mucronate: with a sharp point, short spur, or spiny tip.

Compound leaves

#166. Leaflet arrangement <form>/

1. palmate <often trifoliate>/

2. pinnate/

3. digitate/

4. bipinnately divided/

5. decompound /

Trifoliate: a compound leaf which is divided into three leaflets.

Pinnate: a compound leaf with leaflets arranged in two rows, one on each side of the midrib.

Digitate: a compound leaf with 4 or more leaflets divided from a common point, like the fingers of a hand.

Decompound: leaves that are more than once divided, or compound.

#167. Leaflets <number>/

Leaflet: a division of a compound leaf.

#168. Leaflets <length in mm>/

mm long/

Leaflet: a division of a compound leaf. Measure length of the terminal leaflet; in the legumes measure leaflet nearest the middle of the blade.

#169. Leaflets <width in mm>/

mm wide/

Leaflet: a division of a compound leaf. Measure the width of the terminal leaflet; in legumes, measure leaflet nearest the middle of the blade.

#170. Leaflets <shape>/

1. linear/

2. oblong/

3. elliptic/

4. ovate/

5. obovate/

6. lanceolate/

7. oblanceolate/

8. lacinate/

9. triangular/

10. obtriangular/

Linear: resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

Elliptic: in the shape of an ellipse, or a narrow oval; broadest at the middle and narrower at the two equal ends.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Oblanceolate: inversely lanceolate, with the widest point above the middle.

Lacinate: divided into several long and more or less equal segments.

Triangular: having the shape of a triangle with two equal side and the apex pointing up.

Obtriangular: having the shape of a triangle with two equal side and a flat surface pointing up.

#171. Leaflets <whether veins conspicuous>/

1. veins conspicuous/

2. veins inconspicuous/

Vein: general term for the plant plumbing made up of xylem that carries the water and phloem that carries sugars and associated tissues.

#172. Apical leaflet base <whether stipitate>/

1. distinctly stipitate/

2. not distinctly stipitate /

Apical leaflet: in a compound leaf that has an odd number of leaflets, this is the terminal unmatched leaflet. Stipitate: having a stalk or stipe.

#173. Apical leaflet stipe <length>/

mm long/

Stipe: the midvein of the leaf: here, the short stalk between uppermost leaflets and the apical leaflet.

Sporangia

#174. Plants <Pteridophytes: presence of sporangia>/

1. vegetative leaves without obvious spore-bearing organs/

2. with sporangia /

3. with gemmae/

#175. Sporangia <position>/

1. in the axils of unmodified leaves/

2. in terminal cone-like structures/

3. in sori on the undersurface of the leaves/

Sporangia: (plural) Sporangium: (singular): a case containing spores that develop into a gametophyte (gamete producing) generation of the plant. These plants are tiny and rarely found.

SORI: (plural): SORUS (singular): a heap or cluster of sporangia.

#176. Each sorus <presence of an indusium on sori>/

1. with a distinct indusium/

2. without a distinct indusium/

#177. Indusia <structure>/

1. of narrow hair-like segments, one row of cells many times longer than wide, and longer than the sporangia/

2. ovate, whitish, lanceolate scales that fall early/

3. glandular/

Indusium: the covering over a sporangium that may be a flap of tissue or in Woodsia Numerous multicellular hairs.

Flowering stems

#178. Plants <sexuality of angiosperms>/

1. monoecious/

2. dioecious/

3. bisexual /

4. agamospermic <e.g. asexual>/

Monoecious: having both male and female reproductive organs on the same plant but separated in different floral structures. Having unisexual flowers of different sexes on the same plant.

Dioecious: having the female and male flowers on different plants.

Bisexual: having both male and female reproductive organs in the same flower or capitulum.

Agamospermic: a species which usually forms seed without fertilization.

Asexual: reproducing without sexual union.

#179. Aerial stems <of Pteridophytes: shape in cross section>/

1. circular or oval in cross-section/

2. squarish in cross-section/

#180. Flowering stems <number per plant> /

1. solitary/

2. two or more per plant/

#181. Flowering stems <shape in cross-section, mid-third of the uppermost internode, cf. Metcalfe 1971>/

1. triangular in cross section/

2. circular or oval in cross section/

3. squarish in cross section/

Triangular: usually an equilateral triangle, sometimes with rounded corners.

#182. Flowering stems <or culms, length relative to leaves> /

1. shorter than the leaves/

2. about as high as the leaves/

3. conspicuously taller than the leaves /

Flowering stem (peduncle): an elongated stem, usually arising from a mostly basal cluster of leaves, having a terminal inflorescence. It may, or may not, have leaves or bracts.

Note: this character was developed for the Cyperaceae and may not be appropriate for other families.

#183. Flowering stems <orientation>/

1. erect, straight/

2. curved or decumbent/

#184. Flowering stems <presence of leaves>/

1. with leaves <sometimes smaller than basal leaves>/

2. without leaves <scapose>/

3. without leaves in the upper half/

Flowering stem (peduncle): an elongated stem, usually arising from a mostly basal cluster of leaves, having a terminal flower or inflorescence. It may, or may not, have leaves or bracts.

#185. Flowering stems <leaf position>/

1. uppermost leaf arising below the middle of the stem/

2. uppermost leaf arising above the middle of the stem/

This character was developed for the Cyperaceae, it may not be appropriate in other families.

#186. Flowering stems <whether hairy>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

#187. Flowering stem <scape hairiness>/

1. moderately hairy with short, subappressed to subpatent brown to pale hairs/

2. distinctly hairy with long blackish hairs/

#188. Flowering stems <hairs>/

1. puberulent/

2. pubescent/

3. pilose/

4. villous/

5. tomentose/

6. woolly/

7. short-silky <hairs less than 0.5 mm>/

8. long-silky <hairs greater than 0.5 mm>/

9. strigose/

Puberulent: minutely pubescent or downy.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: with short, dense interwoven hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

Strigose: covered with straight, stiff hairs or bristles.

Note: Leaf characters are based on the largest, mature, medial leaf on a mature shoot.

#189. Flowering stem hairs <type>/

1. simple <unbranched>/

2. branched/

3. stellate/

Floccose: with tufts of soft woolly hairs that often rub off easily. Floccose hairs are flat, irregularly turned, twisted, or felted and appressed to the surface. The hairs are usually so long and intertwined that it is impossible to tell where a single hair begins or ends. They often form a dense tomentum on the lower leaf surface and petiole but may also occur scattered on the peduncle and inflorescences axes.

#190. Flowering stem hairs <length compared to diameter>/

1. shorter than the diameter of the flowering stem/

2. longer than the diameter of the flowering stem/

#191. Flowering stem hairs <colour>/

1. white or translucent/

2. brown/

3. black/

4. transparent with red cross-walls/

5. yellow/

6. transparent with deep purple cross-walls/

Flowering stem (peduncle): the stalk of a single flower, or group of flowers. Pedicel: the stalk of a single flower in a group of flowers.

#192. Flowering stem glandular hairs <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

Glandular hairs: hairs that may secrete complex fluids that often make the structure somewhat sticky.

#193. Flowering stems <whether rooting at the lower stem, or culm nodes in grasses>/

1. rooting at the lower nodes/

2. not rooting at the lower nodes /

Node: the area on a stem (culm) where one or more leaves are borne.

#194. Flowering stems culm nodes <whether exposed - character for Poaceae>/

1. not exposed/

2. becoming exposed/

Node: the area on a stem (culm) where one or more leaves are borne.

Not exposed: sheaths longer than the internode.

Exposed: sheaths shorter than the internode.

In the Arctic, the plants frequently do not elongate enough for nodes to be visible. In a limited number of species, however, whether or not nodes are visible can be a useful indication of whether sheaths are longer or shorter than the internodes.

#195. Flowering stems culm nodes number visible <if exposed - applies to Poaceae>/

Node: the area on a stem (culm) where one or more leaves are borne.

Not exposed: sheaths longer than the internode.

Exposed: sheaths shorter than the internode.

In the Arctic, the plants frequently do not elongate enough for nodes to be visible. In a limited number of species, however, whether or not nodes are visible can be a useful indication of whether sheaths are longer or shorter than the internodes.

#196. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent /

Reduced bract a leaf-like or scale-like structure in sedges, similar to a flag leaf in grasses. This is a sedge character that does not apply to the Asteraceae.

#197. Flag leaf sheaths <whether inflated>/

1. inflated/

2. not inflated/

Flag leaf: uppermost culm leaf of grasses.

Inflated: puffed out, loosely fitting around the stem.

#198. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence <whether conspicuous> /

1. conspicuous and leaf-like/

2. reduced, or scale-like/

Glabrous: without hairs. Scabrous:

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

#199. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence <relative length>/

1. exceeding the inflorescence/

2. similar in length to the inflorescence/

3. shorter than the apex of the inflorescence/

Inflorescence: is a cluster of flowers.

#200. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence <length>/

mm long/

Measured from leaf tip to the point where the leaf is appressed to the stem.

#201. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence <longevity> /

1. caducous/

2. persistent /

Caducous: falling early before the fruit is mature.

#202. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence <relative sheath length>/

1. with sheath longer than the blade/

2. with sheath shorter than the blade/

3. sheathless/

Sheath: the tubular portion of the leaf, which encloses the stem.

Blade: the flat expanded portion of a leaf.

#203. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence <whether tip is calloused>/

1. with calloused tip/

2. without calloused tip /

Inflorescence form

#204. Flowers <grouping>/

1. solitary/

2. in inflorescences /

Solitary: one flower; not in clusters; borne singly.

Inflorescence: a cluster of flowers that are rarely replaced by vegetative bulblets.

Consider solitary Asteraceae flowers, e.g. a dandelion, a capitulum, grouping of small flowers, and thus an inflorescence.

#205. Flower orientation <used to separate Juncus biglumis>/

1. flowers side by side in a horizontal plane/

2. two (or three) flowers side by side on one top of the other/

#206. Inflorescences <bulbils>/

1. with bulbils/

2. without bulbils /

Inflorescence: a cluster of flowers that are rarely replaced by vegetative bulbils.

Bulbil: a small bulb borne in a leaf or bract axil (point between the stem or bract and a leaf). They can easily detach and fall to the ground and vegetatively propagate a new plant (a form of vegetative propagation).

#207. Inflorescences <type>/

1. spicate <but not a catkin>/

2. racemose <but not a catkin>/

3. paniculate/

4. cymose/

5. corymbose/

6. fasciculate/

7. with flowers in umbels/

8. with flowers in a dichasium/

9. head-like <capitate>/

10. catkins/

11. solitary heads /

12. of several flowering heads /

13. a spike of spikes/

14. a raceme of spikes/

Inflorescence: a cluster of flowers that are rarely replaced by vegetative bulblets. In grasses, the flowering portion of the culm, delimited at the base by the uppermost leafy node of the shoot.

Spicate: an inflorescence with sessile or sub-sessile flowers or spikelets attached directly to the main axis. Flowers or spikelets maturing from the bottom upwards.

Racemose: an inflorescence with pedicelled flowers or spikelets attached directly to the main axis and maturing from the bottom upwards.

Pedicel: the stalk of an ndividual flower in an inflorescence or the stalk of a grass spikelet or sedge secondary spike.

Paniculate: a branched inflorescence with pedicelled flowers, maturing from the bottom upwards.

Cymose: an inflorescence with the terminal flowers blooming first.

Corymbose: a racemene in which the stalks of the lateral flowers elongate to bring all to one flat-topped or round-topped level.

Fasciculate: a tight bundle or clusters of pedicelled flowers originating from a common point.

Umbel: an inflorescence in which the stalks of the flowers all arise from the top of the main stalk.

Head-like: a dense cluster of sessile (no pedicel) or sub-sessile (slight pedicel) flowers, sometimes with as few as two flowers as in Juncus biglumis. Asteraceae capitula are a special case see below.

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous (no petals), unisexual flowers.

In the Salicaceae the inflorescences are catkins (aments). They are spikes (Salix) or racemes (Populus), slender or stout, lax or stiff, usually with numerous, small, unisexual, apetalous flowers, the perianth reduced to one or two nectaries, and each flower subtended by a floral bract.

Capitulum or Head (plural capitula): a dense inflorescence usually comprised of sessile small flowers that appear to be a single flower (dandelion).

Of several flowering heads: inflorescences (a capulescense) in the Asteraceae composed of more than one capitulum.

Dichasium: inflorescence in which two lateral branches occur at about the same level with flowers at approximately the same stage of development.

Capitulescence: an inflorescence composed of more than one capitulum.

A spike of spikes. There is often a very short stiff pedicel at the base of each spike but these are easily overlooked.

A raceme of spikes. There is an easily visible pedicel on at least some mature spikes.

#208. Inflorescences <or single flower or capitula position>/

1. terminal/

2. lateral/

Inflorescence: a cluster of flowers that are rarely replaced by vegetative bulblets.

Terminal: located at the end of the stem.

Axillary: arising in the leaf axil between the stem and the leaf.

#209. Inflorescences <whether dense>/

1. dense/

2. diffuse/

Inflorescence: the flowering portion of the culm, delimited at the base by the uppermost leafy node of the shoot, or the flowering head in the Asteraceae.

Dense: Flowers or spikelets tightly grouped.

Diffuse: with the branches spread out, so that the inflorescence is not dense. This character should be assessed when the plant is at or after anthesis; most inflorescences will likely be compact and considered dense before this time.

#210. Inflorescences <shape> /

1. linear/

2. oblong/

3. lanceolate/

4. ovate/

5. globose or sub-globose/

6. obovate/

7. ellipsoid/

8. cylindrical/

9. bell-shaped/

10. hemispherical/

11. pyramidal/

Inflorescence: the flowering portion of the culm, delimited at the base by the uppermost leafy node of the shoot.

Linear: resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Globose: shaped like a round ball.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

Ellipsoid: football-shaped; a three dimensional structure that is elliptic in long section and circular in cross section.

Cylindrical: cylinder-shaped, elongate and round in cross-section.

Character is not to be scored for diffuse inflorescences.

#211. Inflorescences <total length, include all separate spikes in sedges>/

cm long/

Inflorescence: the reproductive shoot, composed of, or bearing a number of flowers. This is usefully measured in dense inflorescences, but more difficult to measure in diffuse inflorescences or ones that elongate significantly in flowering. In grasses the flowering portion of the culm, delimited at the base by the uppermost leafy node of the shoot.

, the length is measured from the bottom node to the top of the inflorescence, excluding the awns.

In sedges, the length of a unispicate inflorescence or spike, or with a multispicate spike of spikes inflorescence with several spikes close together the length of the unit.

#212. Inflorescences <width>/

mm wide/

Inflorescence: the flowering portion of the culm, delimited at the base by the uppermost leafy node of the shoot.

The width is measured at the widest point of the inflorescence, and includes the awns.

Only score this character for compact inflorescences.

#213. Flowering heads <capitula> <height or depth, side view>/

mm deep/

#214. Flowering heads <capitula> <width>/

mm wide/

#215. Flowering heads <capitula> <types of florets present>/

1. with only disc florets/

2. with only ligulate florets <that is strap-like petals with 5 distinct lobes at the apex>/

3. with disc and ray florets <that is strap-like petals with 2–3 ore merely indistinct lobes at the apex>/

Ray floret: usually, asymmetrical, (ligulate) floret with fused petals open on one side almost to the base e.g. in Asteraceae head.

Disc Floret: symmetrical floret at the centre of an Asteraceae head.

#216. Inflorescences <whether elongating in fruit>/

1. elongating as the fruit matures/

2. not elongating as the fruit matures/

Elongating as the fruit matures:

#217. Inflorescences main axis <rachis> <hairs>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. hairy/

Inflorescence: the flowering portion of the culm, delimited at the base by the uppermost leafy node of the shoot.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Scabrous: rough to the touch because of small, stiff, bristly, prickle-hairs on the surface.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

These character states are distinguishable with the naked eye or at 10X magnification.

Rachis: stalk between the flowers of an inflorescence.

#218. Inflorescence main branches angle of divergence/

1. less than 30˚/

2. 30–60˚/

3. 60–90˚/

4. more than 90˚/

Measure the angle between the rachis and the upper surface of the branch.

#219. Number of inflorescence branches at lowest node/

NODE: area on a stem bearing one or more leaves.

#220. Inflorescence primary branches <length - measure longest branch at lowest node>/

mm long/

The length of the longest branch on the plant, to the base of the terminal spikelet.

#221. Inflorescence primary branches <surface features>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

Glabrous: without hairs.

Scabrous: rough to the touch because of small, stiff, bristly, prickle-hairs on the surface.

#222. Inflorescence primary branches <whether the secondary branches are spreading>/

1. with appressed secondary branches/

2. with spreading secondary branches/

Appressed: branches growing at an angle of less than 10 degrees from the rachis or main stem.

#223. Pedicels <whether flowers or spikes are borne on a stalk that is a branch off the main flowering stem, the peduncle> /

1. present /

2. absent/

3. subtending flowering heads <capitula, Asteraceae>/

Sessile: attached directly to the branch or stem, without a stalk.

#224. Pedicels <surface>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. with non-glandular hairs/

4. with glandular hairs/

5. with sessile glands/

Pedicel: the stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence or the stalk of a grass spikelet or sedge secondary spike.

Smooth: without any roughness.

Scabrous: rough to the touch because of small, stiff, bristly, prickle-hairs on the surface.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs, downy.

Glandular hairs: hairs that have often glands on the ends. Glands small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

#225. <Pedicels> bract leaves <length>/

mm long/

Pedicel: the stalk of an individual flower in an inflorescence or the stalk of a grass spikelet or sedge secondary spike.

Bract leaves: reduced leaves on a flowering stem or pedicel, usually, but not always closely associated with a flower or flower cluster.

#226. <Pedicels> bract leaves <width>/

mm wide/

Pedicel Bract leaves: small leaves on the pedicel not immediately adjacent to the flower. Character used in the Caryophyllaceae.

#227. <Pedicels> bract leaves <margins whether scarious>/

1. with a distinct scarious margin/

2. without a distinct scarious margin/

Scabrous margin: a thin, dry, non-green often translucent edge. Character used in the Caryophyllaceae.

#228. <Pedicels> bract leaves <width of scarious margin>/

1. margins less than 0.3 mm/

2. margins 0.3–0.8 mm/

Scabrous margin: a thin, dry, non-green often translucent edge. Character used in the Caryophyllaceae.

#229. Cladoprophylls <presence in Carex>/

1. present <at the base of the peduncle of spikes characteristic of subgenus Carex>/

2. absent <characteristic of subgenus Vignea>/

Cladoprophyll: an small tubular, inner sheath, or tubular prophyll that is usually hyaline. They wrap around the peduncle at the base of inflorescence units in the Cyperaceae and are thought to be homologous with the scales subtending the perigynia. They are completely hidden by the bract sheath, but useful in classification as they are found in subgenus Carex, and Indocarex, but not in subgenus Vignea (Reznicek 1990). that wraps around the peduncle of a Carex spike.

#230. Inflorescence <in Cyperaceae, whether unispicate or multispicate> /

1. unispicate/

2. multispicate/

#231. Inflorescence <total number of spikes in a spicate inflorescence>/

spikes/

#232. Individual spike(s) <orientation>/

1. erect/

2. ascending <but not erect>/

3. divergent <but neither erect nor ascending> /

4. pendent <drooping>/

Erect: stiffly vertical.

Ascending: within the range of angles between erect and divergent.

Divergent: more of less at right angles to the inflorescence.

Reflexed: bent back, rigidly turned over, and maybe downwards.

Pendent: hanging or drooping down.

#233. Bisexual spike(s) <Eriophorum, presence of floral bracts at the base>/

1. with empty bracts at the base/

2. without empty bracts at the base/

Bracts: scale-like or involucre-like structures without florets, immediately below a flower as in Eriophorum or Kobresia.

#234. Terminal spike <sexuality>/

1. staminate at the base <only>/

2. completely staminate/

3. staminate at the apex <only>/

4. with both sexes in each floret <bisexual>/

5. pistillate/

Terminal spike, the uppermost spike on the flowering stem.

Staminate: male flowers with anthers.

Pistil: either a single carpel (female reproductive organs) or a group of fused carpels

Pistillate: female flowers with ovaries.

Involucres

#235. Involucral bracts <or phyllaries> <inflorescence whether involucral bracts, phyllaries are present>/

1. present/

2. absent /

3. on pedicels with bract leaves /

Inflorescence: a cluster of flowers that are rarely replaced by vegetative bulbils.

Involcre: one or more whorls of small leaves or bracts (phyllaries) standing close beneath a flower or flower structure. Common in the daisy family, also occurs in other families. The bracts without flowers at the base of an Eriophorum spike are involucre-like but treated as a separate character.

Bract: a much-reduced leaf, particularly the small or scale-like leaves in a flower cluster or associated with the flowers.

Pedicels that have bracts leaves at some distance from the flower are found in the Caryophyllaceae.

#236. Number of rows <of involucral bracts>/

Involcre: one or more whorls of small leaves or bracts (phyllaries) standing close beneath a flower or flower structure. Common in the Daisy family, also occurs in other families, e.g. Cyperaceae.

Measured across the pressed involucre at the centre. Involucral rows: these are one or more layers of bract leaves.

#237. Outer involucral bracts <colour> /

1. mostly green/

2. mostly wine red or purple pigmented/

3. outermost bracts green, sometimes with red pigment in centre; innermost bracts frequently purple or occasionally green/

4. outermost bracts green, with brown or red edges; innermost bracts almost transparent with red or brown central area/

5. with a green central portion and wide dark margins/

6. with silvery grey central area and wide brown margins/

Involcre: one or more whorls of small leaves or bracts (phyllaries) standing close beneath a flower or flower structure. Common in the Daisy family, also occurs in other families.

#238. Outer involucral bracts <whether reflexed with the inflorescence is at anthesis>/

1. strongly reflexed/

2. lying adjacent to the flowers/

3. spreading to erect/

#239. Outer involucral bracts <shape>/

1. linear/

2. lanceolate/

3. ovate/

4. obovate/

5. oblong /

Involcre: one or more whorls of small leaves or bracts (phyllaries) standing close beneath a flower or flower structure. Common in the Daisy family, also occurs in other families.

Linear: resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

#240. Outer involucral bracts <height>/

mm high/

Involcre: one or more whorls of small leaves or bracts (phyllaries) standing close beneath a flower or flower structure. Common in the Daisy family, also occurs in other families. Measured from base of involucre to tip of innermost bract.

#241. Outer involucral bracts <width>/

mm wide/

Involcre: one or more whorls of small leaves or bracts (phyllaries) standing close beneath a flower or flower structure. Common in the Daisy family, also occurs in other families, e.g. Cyperaceae.

#242. Outer involucral bracts <hairs>/

1. glabrous/

2. sparsely hairy/

3. densely hairy/

Involcre: one or more whorls of small leaves or bracts (phyllaries) standing close beneath a flower or flower structure. Common in the Daisy family, also occurs in other families. Measured from base of involucre to tip of innermost bract.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

#243. Outer involucral bracts <whether hairs are glandular>/

1. with glandular hairs/

2. without glandular hairs/

Glandular: with glands. Glands small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

#244. Inner involucral bracts <shape>/

1. linear/

2. oblong/

3. lanceolate/

4. ovate/

5. obovate/

#245. Inner involucral bracts <height>/

mm high/

#246. Inner involucral bracts <width>/

mm wide/

#247. Inner involucral bracts margins/

1. wide, scarious for at least one quarter of the bract/

2. narrow and scarious, less than one quarter of the bract/

#248. Inner involucral bracts apex <presence of a horn: corniculate>/

1. prominently horned/

2. sometimes callused, but without a prominent horn/

3. with or without horns or calluses/

4. lacerate/

5. entire /

#249. Spikelets <where disarticulating>/

1. disarticulating above the glumes/

2. disarticulating at the base of the spikelet/

3. disarticulating at the nodes of the main axis/

Spikelet: the basic unit of the inflorescence in the grasses and sedges. In grasses, spikelets are composed of one or two glumes and one or more florets.

Disarticulation: The point of disarticulation is where the spikelet breaks for seed dispersal.

Glumes: the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

#250. Spikelets <shape in longitudinal section mainly for monocots>/

1. oblong/

2. lanceolate/

3. ovate/

4. obovate /

5. oblanceolate /

Spikelet: the basic unit of the inflorescence in the grasses and sedges. In grasses, spikelets are composed of one or two glumes and one or more florets.

Linear: resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Oblanceolate: inversely lanceolate, with the widest point above the middle.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

#251. Spikelets <length>/

mm long/

Spikelet: the basic unit of the inflorescence in the grasses and sedges. In grasses, spikelets are composed of one or two glumes and one or more florets. This length does not include the length of any awns.

#252. Spikelets <width>/

mm wide/

Spikelet: the basic unit of the inflorescence in the grasses and sedges. In grasses, spikelets are composed of one or two glumes and one or more florets. The width is measured at the widest point.

#253. Florets per spikelet/

Floret: the lemma and palea with its enclosed flower. The floret may be perfect (having female and male reproductive organs), pistillate (female only) or staminate (male only).

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret.

PALEA: the uppermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret.

Catkins

#254. Catkins <position on previous year’s shoot>/

1. arising from sub-apical buds/

2. arising from lateral buds/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a scaly-bracted spike of apetalous, unisexual flowers

#255. Catkins flowering <relative time of catkin flowering>/

1. before leaves emerge/

2. as leaves emerge/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a scaly-bracted spike of apetalous, unisexual flowers.

#256. Male catkins <length>/

mm long/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers.

Length is the distance from the tip of the catkin to the lowermost flower.

#257. Male catkins <width of pressed catkins>/

mm wide/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers.

Width is measured at about the midpoint of the catkin.

#258. Male catkins <general shape>/

1. slender/

2. stout/

3. sub-globose/

4. globose/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers. It is measured from the tip of the inflorescence to the lowermost flower.

Slender: greater than 3X longer than wide.

Stout: less than 3X longer than wide.

Sub-globose: slightly longer than wide.

Globose: spherical in shape, like a ball.

#259. Male catkins peduncles <length> /

mm long/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers. It is measured from the tip of the inflorescence to the lowermost flower.

Peduncle: the stalk, which can be naked or with 2–3 green bracts, is located between the lowermost flower on the catkin and the nearest (distal) leaf on the flowering branchlet.

Note: Peduncle length is measured from the lowermost flower on the catkin to the nearest (distal) leaf on the flowering branchlet or, if no flowering branchlet is present, to the stem.

#260. Male catkins <presence of leafy, flowering branchlets>/

1. borne on a flowering branchlet <terminating in a catkin>/

2. sessile/

Flowering branchlet: a short, leafy shoot which terminates in a catkin. It bears three to several leaves that correspond to the leaves at the base of normal vegetative branchlets.

Sessile: the catkin is attached directly to the branch.

#261. Male catkins flowering branchlets <length>/

mm long/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers. It is measured from the tip of the inflorescence to the lowermost flower.

FLOWERING BRANCHLET: a short, vegetative shoot on which the catkin is borne. It bears three to several leaves that correspond to the leaves at the base of normal vegetative branchlets.

Note: The flowering branchlet is measured from its point of attachment to the branch to the point of attachment of its uppermost (distal) leaf.

#262. Female catkins <length>/

mm long/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers. It is measured from the tip of the inflorescence to the lowermost flower.

Length is the distance from the tip of the catkin to the lowermost flower.

#263. Female catkins <width of pressed catkins>/

mm wide/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers. It is measured from the tip of the inflorescence to the lowermost flower.

Width is measured at about the midpoint of the catkin.

#264. Female catkins <general shape>/

1. slender/

2. stout/

3. sub-globose/

4. globose/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers. It is measured from the tip of the inflorescence to the lowermost flower.

Slender: greater than 3X longer than wide.

STOUT: less than 3X longer than wide.

Sub-globose: slightly longer than wide.

Globose: spherical in shape, like a ball.

#265. Female catkins peduncles <length> /

mm long/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers. It is measured from the tip of the inflorescence to the lowermost flower.

PEDUNCLE: the naked stalk (or with 2–3 green bracts) located between the proximal (lowermost) flower on the catkin and the first leaf on the flowering branchlet.

Note: Peduncle length is measured from the lowermost flower on the catkin to the nearest (distal) leaf on the flowering branchlet or, if no flowering branchlet is present, to the stem.

#266. Female catkins <presence of leafy, flowering branchlets>/

1. borne on a flowering branchlet/

2. sessile/

Flowering branchlet: a short, vegetative shoot on which the catkin is borne at the end. It bears three to several leaves that correspond to the leaves at the base of normal vegetative branchlets.

Sessile: the catkin is attached directly onto the stem.

#267. Female catkins flowering branchlets <length>/

mm long/

Catkin: an inflorescence consisting of a dense spike or raceme of apetalous, unisexual flowers. It is measured from the tip of the inflorescence to the lowermost flower.

Flowering branchlet: a short, vegetative shoot on which the catkin is borne. It bears three to several leaves that correspond to the leaves at the base of normal vegetative branchlets.

Note: The flowering branchlet is measured from its point of attachment to the branch to the point of attachment of its uppermost (distal) leaf.

Sedge flowers

#268. Floral scales <pistillate scales in Carex relative length>/

1. shorter than the perigynium in fruit/

2. as long as the perigynium in fruit/

3. longer than the perigynium in fruit/

Perigynium (plural perigynia) the inflated sac surrounding the ovary in Carex or Kobresia that may be open or closed.

FLORAL SCALE: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower.

#269. Floral scales <pistillate colour>/

1. brown/

2. black/

3. orange-brown/

4. green/

5. white or translucent/

Floral scale: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower.

#270. Floral scales <pistillate scale margins>/

1. with margins the same colour as the body of the scale/

2. with margins and sometimes midvein paler in colour than the adjacent area of the scale/

3. with margins darker in colour than the midvein/

4. with margins paler than body of the scale/

Floral scale: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower.

#271. Floral scales <pistillate orientation>/

1. reflexed/

2. not reflexed/

Floral scale: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower.

Reflexed: bent back, and pointing downwards.

#272. Floral scales <shape>/

1. ovate/

2. lanceolate/

3. obovate/

Floral scale: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower. Truncate: apical region flat.

#273. Floral scales <pistillate longevity>/

1. falling early <caducous>/

2. not falling early/

Floral scale: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower.

#274. Floral scales <pistillate flowers length>/

mm long/

Floral scale: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower.

#275. Floral scales <pistillate flowers width>/

mm wide/

Floral scale: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower.

#276. Floral scales <hairiness on outer surface>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy all over/

3. hairy mainly at apex/

Floral scale: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

#277. Floral scales apex <pistillate shape at apex>/

1. rounded/

2. retuse/

3. obtuse/

4. cuspidate/

5. acute/

Floral scale: any thin, scarious body, usually a degenerate leaf, sometimes of epidermal origin and subtending each flower. Truncate: apical region flat.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Obtuse: at an angle of more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Cuspidate: tipped with a sharp point.

Acute: tapering to a point; angle less than 45 degrees.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

Rounded: with a rounded apex.

Retuse: with a shallow notch in a round or blunt apex.

Lacerate: cut irregularly, as if torn.

Floral bracts

#278. Floral bracts <colour> /

1. tawny <dull yellowish-brown>/

2. light rose/

3. brown/

4. black/

5. bicolour <darker toward tip>/

6. pale grey <lead coloured>/

7. orange brown/

8. green/

9. white or translucent/

10. purplish red/

Floral bract: a much reduced leaf subtending each flower.

Glabrous: without hairs.

#279. Floral bracts <length>/

mm long/

#280. Floral bracts <width>/

mm wide/

#281. Floral bracts <hairiness on outer surface>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy all over/

3. hairy mainly at apex/

#282. Floral bracts hairs <density>/

1. sparse/

2. moderately dense <surface 50% visible>/

3. very dense <surface completely obscured>/

Floral bract: a much reduced leaf subtending each flower.

#283. Floral bracts hairs <shape>/

1. straight/

2. wavy/

Floral bract: a much reduced leaf subtending each flower.

#284. Floral bracts apices <shape> /

1. acute <margins slightly curved, form less than right angle>/

2. convex <margins slightly curved, form more than right angle>/

3. rounded <margins forming a smooth arc>/

4. truncate <as if cut at right angles to rachis>/

5. retuse <slightly notched>/

Apex shape terminology follows Hickey (1973, 1979).

#285. Floral bracts apices <whether divided>/

1. entire/

2. with minute undulations/

3. bifid/

4. divided into 3-lobes/

5. lacerate/

6. dilate/

Floral bract: a much reduced leaf subtending each flower.

Entire: not toothed, notched, or divided, as the continuous margins of some leaves.

Glumes of grasses

#286. <Presence of glumes>/

1. one glume on all spikelets except the terminal spikelet, which has two/

2. two glumes present/

3. glumes absent /

Glumes: the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

#287. First glume <length relative to the second glume>/

× the length of the second glume/

First glume: the lower of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

SECOND GLUME: the upper such glume.

#288. First glume <length relative to the spikelet>/

× spikelet length/

First glume: the lower of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

#289. First glume <length>/

mm long/

First glume: the lower of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

#290. First glume <shape>/

1. linear/

2. oblong/

3. lanceolate/

4. ovate/

5. oblanceolate/

First glume: the lower of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

Linear: resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel Sides.

Deltoid: triangular.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

Oblanceolate: inversely lanceolate, with the widest point above the middle.

#291. First glume <whether hairy>/

1. glabrous/

2. with trichomes/

First glume: the lower of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

Glabrous without hairs.

Trichomes: hairs or hair-like outgrowths, that may be scabrous (stiff) or pubescent (soft), on the surface of the glume.

#292. First glume margins <whether ciliate>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. ciliate/

First glume: the lower of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Ciliate: fringed with hairs.

#293. First glume veins <number>/

First glume: the lower of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet. Number of veins crossing the central point.

#294. First glume apex <shape of the apical region>/

1. acuminate/

2. acute/

3. obtuse/

4. truncate/

First glume: the lower of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

CAUDATE: with a tail-like appendage.

Acuminate: apical region with sides somewhat concave, and which taper to an extended point.

Acute: tapering to a point with an angle of 45–90 degrees.

Obtuse: at an angle of more than 90 degrees but less than 180 degrees.

Truncate: apical region flat.

#295. Second glume <length relative to the spikelet>/

1. 0.4 × as long as the spikelet or less/

2. 0.4–0.9 × as long as the spikelet/

3. as long or longer than the spikelet/

Second glume: the upper of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

#296. Second glume <length relative to the lowest floret, without lemma awn>/

1. shorter than the lowest floret/

2. almost as long as, or longer than, the lowest floret/

Second glume: the upper of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

This measurement excludes the length of the lemma awn.

#297. Second glume <length>/

mm long/

Second glume: the upper of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

#298. Second glume <shape>/

1. linear/

2. oblong/

3. lanceolate/

4. ovate/

5. elliptic/

6. oblanceolate/

Second glume: the upper of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

Linear: resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

DELTOID: triangular.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

Elliptic: in the shape of an ellipse, or a narrow oval; broadest at the middle and narrower at the two equal ends.

Oblanceolate: inversely lanceolate, with the widest point above the middle.

#299. Second glume <surface features>/

1. glabrous/

2. with trichomes/

Second glume: the upper of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Trichomes: hairs or hair-like outgrowths, that may be scabrous (stiff) or pubescent (soft) on the surface of the glume.

#300. Second glume margins <whether ciliate>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. ciliate/

Glabrous: without hairs.

Cilate: fringed with hairs.

#301. Second glume veins <number>/

Second glume: the upper of the pair of bracts usually present at the base of the spikelet. Number of veins transferring the central point.

Rachilla and callus of grasses

#302. Rachilla <whether pronounced between the florets>/

1. pronounced between the florets/

2. not pronounced between the florets/

Rachilla: the internal axis of the spikelet in grasses or a spike in sedges. If pronounced between the florets, the spikelet or spike may have a jointed, zigzag appearance.

#303. Rachilla <whether terminating in a naked point or spikelet>/

1. terminating in a well-formed floret/

2. terminating in a vestigial floret/

3. extending beyond the uppermost floret <the terminal floret absent>/

Rachilla: the internal axis of the spikelet in grasses or a spike in sedges.

Vestigial: rudimentary and almost completely reduced; with only a vestige remaining.

#304. Rachilla internode <length>/

mm long/

Rachilla: the internal axis of the spikelet in grasses or a spike in sedges.

#305. Rachilla internode <width>/

mm wide/

Rachilla: the internal axis of the spikelet in grasses and sedges.

#306. Rachilla internode <surface features>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. hairy/

Rachilla: the internal axis of the spikelet in grasses or a spike in sedges.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Scabrous: rough to the touch because of small, stiff, bristly, prickle-hairs on the surface.

Hairy: with any form of soft hairs.

#307. Callus <whether differentiated>/

1. differentiated/

2. not differentiated /

Callus: a hard thickening or protuberance; the thickened basal extension of the lemma in many grasses.

Caution. The callus may appear differentiated if hairs occur at the base of the lemma, but not on the callus.

#308. Callus hairs <length>/

mm long/

Callus: a hard thickening or protuberance; the thickened basal extension of the lemma in many grasses.

When the hairs are very curly, the lengths are only approximate.

#309. Callus hairs <length relative to the floret>/

1. shorter than the floret /

2. sub-equal to the floret/

3. longer than the floret/

Callus: a hard thickening or protuberance; the thickened basal extension of the lemma in many grasses. Sub-equal callus hairs occur in Calamagrostis canadensis.

#310. Lemma <of fertile floret, shape>/

1. oblong/

2. ovate/

3. lanceolate/

4. elliptic/

5. obovate/

6. oblanceolate/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet.

Linear: resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Elliptic: in the shape of an ellipse, or a narrow oval; broadest at the middle and narrower at the two equal ends.

Obovate: Inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

Oblanceolate: inversely lanceolate, with the widest point above the middle.

Lemma, awns, and palea of grasses

#311. Lemma <of fertile floret, length>/

mm long/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet.

#312. Lemma <of fertile floret, whether keeled>/

1. keeled/

2. rounded on the back/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet.

Keel: a raised or pronounced ridge, often V-shaped.

#313. Lemma <whether inrolled>/

1. lemma not strongly inrolled/

2. lemma strongly inrolled/

#314. Lemma surface <of fertile floret, lustre>/

1. shiny/

2. dull/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet.

SHINY: similar to high gloss or semi-gloss paint.

DULL: surface reflection similar to that of flat paint.

#315. Lemma surface <of fertile floret, whether hairy>/

1. glabrous/

2. sparsely scabrous/

3. hairy/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Sparely scabrous: with a sparse covering of minute prickle-hairs.

Hairy: with longer, soft, more slender hairs on the surface.

#316. Lemma surface with trichomes/

1. on veins only/

2. on and between the veins/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet.

Trichomes: hairs or hair-like outgrowths, that may be scabrous (stiff) or pubescent (soft) on the surface of the glume.

#317. Lemma veins <number>/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet. The number of veins crossing the central point.

#318. Lemma apex <of fertile floret, shape of the apical region>/

1. acuminate/

2. acute/

3. rounded/

4. truncate/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet.

CAUDATE: with a tail-like appendage.

Acuminate: apex with sides somewhat concave, and which taper to an extended point.

Acute: tapering to a point with an angle of 45–90 degrees.

Truncate: apical region flat.

#319. Lemma apex <of fertile floret, apical modifications>/

1. entire/

2. erose/

3. lacerate/

4. bifid/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet.

Entire: not toothed, notched, or divided, as the continuous margins of some leaves.

Erose: Erose: irregularly and shallowly toothed as if gnawed.

Lacerate: cut irregularly, as if torn.

Bifid: deeply two-cleft or two-lobed, usually from the tip.

#320. Lemma apex <of fertile floret, whether ciliate>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. ciliate/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret. Data refer to the first lemma in the spikelet.

Ciliate: fringed with hairs.

#321. Length of trichomes <on lemma apex>/

1. less than 25 um/

2. more than 25 um/

#322. Lemma <whether awned>/

1. awned/

2. awnless/

Lemma: the lowermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret.

Awn: a substantial hair or bristle.

#323. Awn arising <of the fertile floret, position of the awn>/

1. from the tip/

2. from below the apex but above the middle/

3. from the middle or below <but not near the base>/

4. from just above the base/

Awn: a substantial hair or bristle.

#324. Awn <of fertile floret awn, length>/

mm long/

Awn: a substantial hair or bristle.

#325. Palea <of fertile floret, development>/

1. well developed/

2. vestigial/

3. absent/

Palea: the uppermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret.

Vestigial: rudimentary and almost completely reduced; with only a vestige remaining.

#326. Palea <length>/

mm long/

Palea: the uppermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret.

#327. Palea veins <of fertile floret trichomes on the veins or keels>/

1. glabrous/

2. scabrous/

3. hairy/

Palea: the uppermost of the two bracts enclosing the flower in the grass floret.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Scabrous: rough to the touch because of small, stiff, bristly, prickle-hairs on the surface.

Hairy: with longer, soft, more slender hairs on the surface.

Flowers and perianth

#328. Flowers per inflorescence <number>/

#329. Flowers <size>/

1. small <less than 5 mm in diameter or length>/

2. medium-sized <5–15 mm in diameter or length>/

3. large <more than 15 mm in diameter or length>/

#330. Flowers <symmetry>/

1. radially symmetrical (actinomorphic) /

2. bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic)/

Symmetry: the arrangement of the flower parts including sepals, petals, anthers and gynoecium.

Actinomorphic: regular, radially symmetrical; a flower in which all parts are similar in size and arrangement.

Zygomorphic: transversely or bilaterally symmetrical; floral parts with two symmetrical halves, but not radially symmetrical.

#331. Flowers <sexuality>/

1. unisexual/

2. bisexual /

Unisexual: a flower with either male or female reproductive organs, but not with both.

Bisexual: having both male and female reproductive organs on the same plant and in the same floral structure.

#332. Staminate flowers <visibility>/

1. inconspicuous <often concealed among pistillate flowers>/

2. conspicuous/

#333. <Modified> perianth <both the sepals and petals> represented by/

1. lodicules/

2. bristles (the "cotton" of cotton grasses)/

3. a perigynium/

#334. Perianth bristles <colour>/

1. silky white, or translucent/

2. dull white/

3. inconspicuous/

4. creamy white or tinged pale brown/

#335. Sepals <or tepals> <presence>/

1. conventional/

2. absent/

3. modified (but not a pappus) /

4. represented by a pappus/

Calyx and epicalyx

#336. Epicalyx <presence of epicalyx>/

1. present/

2. absent /

Epicalyx: lobes of the hypathium, below the calyx that appear as a calyx tube; important in the Rosaceae.

#337. Epicalyx segments <length>/

mm long/

Epicalyx: lobes of the hypathium, below the calyx that appear as a calyx tube; important in the Rosaceae.

#338. Epicalyx segments <width>/

mm wide/

Epicalyx: lobes of the hypathium, below the calyx that appear as a calyx tube;

#339. Epicalyx segments <relative length>/

1. shorter than the calyx segments/

2. equal in length to the calyx segments/

3. longer than the calyx segments/

Epicalyx: lobes of the hypathium, below the calyx that appear as a calyx tube; important in the Rosaceae.

#340. Epicalyx segments <relative width>/

1. narrower than the calyx segments/

2. equal in width to the calyx segments/

3. wider than the calyx segments/

Epicalyx: lobes of the hypathium, below the calyx that appear as a calyx tube; important in the Rosaceae.

#341. Calyx base <shape at the point of attachment of the sepals to the pedicel for free sepals, particularly Cerastium species>/

1. narrowly angled <angle 20–45°>/

2. widely angled <angle 45–80°>/

3. rounded <the angle at the base 80–90°>/

#342. Sepals <number of free or fused sepals with distinct tips>/

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; forms the outer perianth whorl. Sepal: an individual unit of the calyx; it is usually green and often hairy; in some plants the Sepals are brightly coloured and assume the function of petals.

#343. Sepals <fusion>/

1. free/

2. fused/

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; forms the outer perianth whorl.

Free: sepals independent of one another.

Fused: sepals joined to one another, usually forming a tube (calyx).

#344. Sepals <length in mm> <measure the length of a sepal: don't measure if calyx is a pappus>/

mm long/

Character developed for Cerastium.

#345. Sepals <or calyx segments width in mm>/

mm wide/

#346. Sepals <or episepals> <colour>/

1. green/

2. yellow/

3. brown/

4. purple/

5. red/

6. blue/

7. black/

8. pink/

9. white/

10. purplish red/

11. translucent/

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; forms the outer perianth whorl.

#347. Sepals <texture>/

1. herbaceous /

2. scarious/

3. petaloid/

4. fleshy/

5. leathery/

6. membranous with prominent ribs/

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; forms the outer perianth whorl.

Scarious: a thin, dry, non-green membranous structure.

#348. Sepals <accrescent>/

1. accrescent/

2. non-accrescent /

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; forms the outer perianth whorl.

Accrescent: expanding and growing larger after flowering; bigger in fruit, than in flower, e.g. bladder campion.

#349. Calyx <free apex whether mucronate>/

1. tip mucronate <with an awn-like bristle>/

2. tip not mucronate <without an awn-like bristle> /

Character developed for the Juncaceae.

#350. Calyx <shape when sepals are fused>/

1. tubular/

2. bell-shaped/

3. bilabiate/

4. funnel-form/

5. rotate/

6. ovoid/

7. sub-cylindrical/

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; forms the outer perianth whorl.

Tubular: shaped like a cylindrical tube.

Bell-shaped: a tube that is narrow at one end and flared out towards the other end.

Bilabiate: with two lips; each lip may be lobed or toothed.

Funnel-form: gradually widening from base to apex; funnel-shaped.

Rotate: disc-shaped; flat and circular, with widely spreading lobes and little or no tube.

#351. Calyx <margin, when sepals fused>/

1. unlobed/

2. 2-lobed/

3. 3-lobed/

4. 4-lobed/

5. 5-lobed/

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; forms the outer perianth whorl.

Note: If there only appears to be one perianth whorl in a flower it is usually considered to be the calyx.

LOBED: bearing lobes which are cut less than half way to the base or midvein.

#352. Calyx <or sepals> <glands>/

1. with sessile glands/

2. without sessile glands /

#353. Calyx <or sepals> <hairs>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; forms the outer perianth whorl.

Glabrous: without hairs.

#354. Calyx hairs <surface pubescence>/

1. puberulent/

2. pubescent/

3. pilose/

4. villous/

5. tomentose/

6. woolly/

7. short-silky <less than 0.5 mm>/

8. long-silky <greater than 0.5 mm>/

9. strigose/

Sepal: an individual unit of the calyx; it is usually green and often hairy; in some plants the sepals are brightly coloured and assume the function of petals.

Puberulent: minutely pubescent or downy.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: with short, dense interwoven hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

Strigose: covered with straight, stiff hairs or bristles.

#355. Calyx hairs <whether glandular>/

1. glandular/

2. non-glandular/

Glandular hairs: hairs that have often glands on the ends. Glands small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

#356. Calyx hairs <colour>/

1. white or translucent/

2. brown/

3. black/

4. transparent with red cross-walls/

#357. Calyx <sepal margins, whether ciliate>/

1. margins ciliate/

2. margins without cilia /

Ciliate: fringed with hairs.

#358. Calyx teeth <whether equal in a fused calyx>/

1. equal or nearly so/

2. sub-equal or unequal/

Calyx Teeth: shape pointed lobes at the top of the calyx sepals.

#359. Calyx teeth <whether glandular verrucose, in a fused calyx>/

1. with abundant glandular verrucae/

2. without or with few glandular verrucae /

Verrucose: covered with verrucae, that is, wart-like outgrowths.

#360. Calyx teeth <length>/

mm long/

Calyx teeth: shape pointed lobes at the top of the calyx sepals.

#361. Pappus/

1. with a single row of hairs/

2. with a double row of hairs/

Pappus: peculiar modified calyx of a single floret, borne on the ovary (persisting in fruit), being plumose, bristle-like, and may have scales.

Douboe Pappus: two distinct lengths of pappus filaments.

#362. Pappus <colour>/

1. yellowish <Taraxacum plants flowering in the fall>/

2. whitish <Taraxacum plants usually flowering in the spring>/

#363. Ligulate florets pappus <length>/

mm long/

#364. Ray florets pappus <length>/

mm long/

Ray floret: ligulate floret on Asteraceae head.

Pappus: peculiar modified calyx of a single floret, borne on the ovary (persisting in fruit), being plumose, bristle-like, and may have scales.

#365. Disc florets pappus <length>/

mm long/

Disk floret: tubular floret on Asteraceae head.

Pappus: peculiar modified calyx of a single floret, borne on the ovary (persisting in fruit), being plumose, bristle-like, and may have scales.

Petals

#366. Petals <presence>/

1. conventional/

2. absent/

3. modified as bristles or perigynia /

#367. Petals <fusion>/

1. free <to the base>/

2. fused <all petals, or all but one position in the corolla (ligulate or ray florets) joined at least at base>/

3. both free and fused <as in pea flowers>/

Petal: an individual segment of the corolla.

Free: not attached to other petals at the base.

FUSED: petals are joined at least at the base, but can be fused to the tip of the petal.

#368. Petals <length relative to sepals>/

1. shorter than the calyx/

2. same length as the calyx/

3. longer than the calyx /

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; forms the outer perianth whorl.

#369. Petals <number: usually indicated by the lobes in fused petals>/

Petal: an individual segment of the corolla.

#370. Petals <colour>/

1. green/

2. white/

3. yellow/

4. orange/

5. red/

6. pink/

7. purple/

8. blue/

9. brown/

Petal: an individual segment of the corolla.

COROLLA: the collective name for all the petals; the inner perianth whorl.

#371. Petals <markings>/

1. with contrasting markings /

2. without contrasting markings /

Constrasting markings: distinctly different lines or patches of colour.

#372. Petals <free> <shape>/

1. elliptic/

2. ovate/

3. obovate/

4. lanceolate/

5. oblanceolate/

6. spatulate/

7. linear/

8. obtriangular/

Elliptic: in the shape of an ellipse, or a narrow oval; broadest at the middle and narrower at the two equal ends.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

Lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

Oblanceolate: inversely lanceolate, with the widest point above the middle.

Spatulate: spoon-shaped, with a rounded blade above gradually tapering to the base.

Linear : resembling a line; long and narrow with more or less parallel sides.

Obtriangular: shaped like an inverted triangle.

#373. Petals <free> <apex margins>/

1. unlobed/

2. slightly lobed or undulating/

3. notched/

4. deeply cleft/

Corolla: the collective name for all the Petals; the inner perianth whorl.

Shallowly lobes: bearing lobes which are cut less than an third of the way to the base of the petal.

Deeply cleft: petal divided into lobes that are more than have of its length deep.

#374. Petals <length in mm; measure disc florets in Asteraceae>/

mm long/

Petal: an individual segment of the corolla.

Corolla: the collective name for all the petals; the inner perianth whorl.

In Asteraceae measure the length of the disc floret petals.

#375. Petals <width in mm>/

mm wide/

#376. Petals <spurred>/

1. spurred/

2. not spurred /

Petal: an individual segment of the corolla.

Corolla: the collective name for all the petals; the inner perianth whorl.

Spurred: bearing a spur or spurs (a hollow, slender, sac like appendage of a petal).

#377. Corolla <shape> /

1. tubular/

2. rotate/

3. cup-like/

4. bilabiate/

5. campanulate <bell-shaped>/

6. urceolate/

7. funnel-form/

8. papilionaceous/

9. flat, strap-like <ligulate>/

This character only applies to petals that are fused.

Corolla: the collective name for all the petals; the inner perianth whorl.

Tubular: with the form of a tube or cylinder.

Rotate: disc-shaped; flat and circular, with widely spreading lobes and little or no tube.

Cup-like: narrower at the base and spreading towards the apex.

Bilabiate: two-lipped; each lip may be lobed or toothed.

Campanulate: bell-shaped; a narrow tube and spreading lobes.

Urceolate: pitcher or vase-like; hollow and contracted near the mouth like a pitcher or urn.

Funnel-form: triangular in outline, gradually widening from base to apex, funnel-shaped.

Papillionaceous: consisting of 5 petals with a banner petal (the uppermost one, with a fold along the middle), two wing petals, and two fused petals that form the keel.

Flat, strap-like (ligulate) corolla of the ray florets; tubular at the base, prolonged on the outer side into a flat, more or less strap-shaped organ that may appear as a single petal.

#378. Corolla <fused, number of lobes>/

1. unlobed/

2. 2-lobed/

3. 3-lobed/

4. 4-lobed/

5. 5-lobed/

Corolla: the collective name for all the petals; the inner perianth whorl.

#379. Corolla keel <whether tipped>/

1. blunt/

2. with a pointed tip/

Corolla: collective name for all the petals; the inner perianth whorl.

Keel: the lower unit of a legume flower formed by two fused petals.

#380. Corolla helmet <Scrophulariaceae, whether beaked>/

1. prolonged into a long beak/

2. not prolonged into a long beak/

Helmet: or hood in Scrophulariaceae, the upper or adaxial axial pair of petals in a bilabiate flower. They are fused for their entire length and arch over the lower three petals that form the landing platform for a pollinating insect.

BEAK: in Scrophulariaceae, prolonged and like a snorkle-hood at the end of the helmet.

#381. Corolla helmet <Scrophulariaceae, whether toothed>/

1. with 2 small teeth at the apex/

2. without 2 small teeth at the apex/

Teeth: small protrusions on the surface of the helmet facing the landing petals.

#382. Wing auricles <free or united>/

1. free from each other, blunt, shorter than the claw/

2. united, linear, nearly equal to the claw/

Wings: Two outermost petals of the papilionaceous flower.

Auricules (Fabaceae): Flaps at the base of the wing petals.

CLAW: Narrow basal part of wing petal.

Banner: upper petal of papilionaceous flower with a fold in the middle.

Keel: the lower unit of a legume flower formed by two fused petals.

Ray and ligulate florets

#383. Ray florets <number of in heads that also have disc florets>/

Ray Floret: outer modified floret of some Asteraceae with an expanded or strap-like part to the corolla.

Limb: the expanding flat part of the corolla.

#384. Ray florets limb <length>/

mm long/

#385. Ray florets limb <width>/

mm wide/

#386. Ligulate florets <number>/

#387. Ligulate florets limb <length>/

mm long/

#388. Ligulate florets limb <width>/

mm wide/

Stamens

#389. Stamens <whether present>/

1. present <possibly not functional> /

2. absent/

#390. Stamens <number>/

Stamens: the male reproductive organs of a flower, consisting of an anther (pollen bearing portion) and filament (stalk that supports the anther).

#391. Stamen filaments <relative lengths>/

1. markedly unequal in length/

2. all equal in length /

Stamens: the male reproductive organs of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.

Anther: structure containing pollen.

Filament: stalk between the receptable and the anther.

#392. Anther filaments <whether fused>/

1. distinct /

2. 9 fused into a tube, plus 1 free/

3. fused at the base/

4. fused in the lower half/

#393. Stamen filaments <hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy for the full length/

3. hairy on lower half/

4. hairy at base only/

Stamens: the male reproductive organs of a flower, consisting of an anther (pollen bearing portion) and filament (stalk that supports the anther).

Glabrous: without hairs.

#394. Staminate flowers <filament indumentum position>/

1. hairy all over/

2. hairy on lower half/

3. hairy at base/

#395. Stamens <attachment>/

1. fused to the corolla/

2. free of the corolla /

Stamens: the male reproductive organs of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.

Note: In some flowers, the stamens are fused to the corolla (petals), while in others they are completely free from the petals.

#396. Anthers <colour>/

1. purple <dark purple>/

2. purple becoming yellow/

3. reddish, <or brownish> becoming yellow/

4. yellow/

5. blue/

6. red/

Anther: the pollen bearing structure at the tip of the filament.

#397. Anthers <shape, before dehiscence>/

1. ellipsoid/

2. short-cylindrical <less than 3x as long as wide>/

3. long-cylindrical <greater than 3x as long as wide>/

4. ovoid/

5. sub-globose/

6. triangular/

Anther: the pollen bearing portion of the male reproductive organ of a flower.

Dehiscent: opening at maturity to release the pollen.

Ellipsoid: football-shaped; a three dimensional structure that is elliptic in long section and circular in cross section.

Cylindrical: cylinder-shaped, elongate and round in cross-section.

Ovoid: egg-shaped.

Sub-globose: almost spherical in shape, like a ball.

Triangular: shaped like an equilateral or Isosceles triangle.

Character mainly used for the Salicaceae.

#398. Anthers <opening>/

1. splitting longitudinally /

2. opening with a terminal pore /

#399. Anthers <length including any apiculum (apical) and basal appendages>/

mm long/

Anther: the pollen bearing portion of the male reproductive organ of a flower. Apiculum: terminated by a short, sharp point. Length: In Salicaceae (willows) this is measured on dry dehised anthers. In most other plants, escepeially monocots, it has been measured on mature anthers that have been taken from flowers that have been softened in water and measured under a microscope.

Nectaries

#400. Nectaries <in bisexual flowers>/

1. present/

2. absent/

Nectary: a nectar secreting gland, often appearing as a protuberance, scale, or pit.

#401. <Salix> male flowers abaxial <between stamens and bract> nectaries <presence> /

1. absent/

2. present/

Abaxial: the side of a lateral organ away from the axis.

Nectary: a nectar secreting gland, often appearing as a protuberance, scale, or pit.

#402. <Salix> male flowers adaxial <between stamens and rachis> nectaries <shape>/

1. narrowly oblong/

2. oblong/

3. square/

4. ovate/

5. half-cup-shaped/

6. flask-shaped/

Adaxial: the side of a lateral organ adjacent to the axis.

Nectary: a nectar secreting gland, often appearing as a protuberance, scale, or pit.

#403. <Salix> male flowers adaxial <between stamens and rachis> nectaries <length>/

mm long/

Adaxial: the side of a lateral organ adjacent to the axis.

Nectary: a nectar secreting gland, often appearing as a protuberance, scale, or pit.

Slender-rod: length of nectary 4 or more times width.

Broad-rod: length of nectary 4 or more times width.

SQUARE: about as long as wide.

Ovate: egg-shaped, broadest at the base, narrowed towards the tip.

Half-cup-shaped: base of nectary curved around the stamens.

#404. <Salix> male flowers <abaxial and adaxial> nectaries <coalescence>/

1. distinct/

2. connate and cup-shaped/

3. cup-shaped /

Adaxial: the side of a lateral organ adjacent to the axis.

Nectary: a nectar secreting gland, often appearing as a protuberance, scale, or pit.

#405. <Salix> female flowers abaxial <between ovary and bract> nectaries <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present/

#406. <Salix> female flowers adaxial <between ovary and rachis> nectaries <shape>/

1. narrowly oblong/

2. oblong/

3. square/

4. ovate/

5. flask-shaped/

Adaxial: the side facing the main axis of the plant.

Nectary: the organ which produces the nectar.

Ovary: the portion of the gynoecium that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

Gynoecia (plural: gynoecium single): the female organs of a flower. Pistil:term appicaly to a superior ovary: the female reproductive organ, comprised of ovary, style and stigma.

Rachis: axis of the catkin, bearing the flowers.

Slender-rod: length 4 or more times width.

Broad-rod: length 2–3 times width.

Square: approximately as long as wide.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

#407. <Salix> female flowers adaxial <between ovary and rachis> nectaries <length>/

mm long/

Adaxial: the side facing the main axis of the plant.

Nectary: the organ which produces the nectar.

Ovary: the portion of the gynoeciam that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

Gynoecia (plural: gynoecium single): the female organs of a flower.

#408. <Salix> female flowers adaxial <between ovary and rachis> nectaries <relative length>/

1. shorter than stipes/

2. equal to stipes/

3. longer than stipes/

Adaxial: the side facing the main axis of the plant.

Nectary: the organ which produces the nectar.

Ovary: the portion of the gynoecim that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

#409. <Salix> female flowers <abaxial and adaxial> nectaries <coalescence>/

1. distinct/

2. connate and cup-shaped/

3. cup-shaped /

Coalescence: fusion between like parts.

Floral bract: a reduced leaf or scale-like structure at the base of a flower.

Nectary: the organ which produces the nectar.

Ovary: the portion of the gynoecium that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

Rachis: axis of the catkin, bearing the flowers.

Gynoecia (plural: gynoecium single): the female organs of a flower.

Style: the usually elongated portion of the gynoeciua between the stigma and the ovary. Stigma: the part of the gynoecium which receives the pollen. Gynoecia (plural: gynoecium single): the female organs of a flower.

Stipe: the stalk subtending the gynoecium.

Receptacles, carpels, and ovaries

#410. Receptacle <height>/

mm high/

Receptacle: the portion of the stem upon which the flower or inflorescence is borne.

#411. Receptacle surface <whether hairy>/

1. glabrous /

2. hairy/

#412. <Gynoecia> ovary <position, when carpels fused or appearing monomerous>/

1. superior/

2. partly inferior/

3. inferior/

Gynoecia (plural: gynoecium single): the female organs of a flower.

Superior (hypogynous): having the flower parts attached below the base of the ovary and free from it.

Partly inferiour (perigynous): having the flower parts attached to the edge of a cup shaped receptacle.

Inferior (epigynous): having the flower parts attached at or above the top of the ovary.

#413. Ovary carpels <number>/

Carpel: female reproductive organ, consisting of a stigma, style, and ovary.

Note: In order to determine the number of carpels it may be necessary to take a cross section of the flower and count the number of segments. Each segment usually is one carpel.

#414. <Gynoecium> ovary <fusion>/

1. monomerous/

2. apocarpous/

3. partly fused/

4. syncarpous <completely fused>/

Carpel: female reproductive organ, consisting of a stigma, style, and ovary.

Monomerous: having a single carpel.

Apocarpous: having two or more carpels that are free from one another.

Syncarpous: having two or more carpels that are fused.

#415. Perigynia <with or without a stalk, stipe>/

1. contracted at the base into a stipe/

2. sessile/

Sessile: without a stalk.

#416. Stipes <length>/

mm long/

Stipe: the stalk of an ovary.

Ovary: the expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

#417. Ovaries <shape of superior ovaries>/

1. inverse club-shaped <obclavate>/

2. pear-shaped <pyriform>/

3. ovate <egg-shaped>/

4. inverse turnip-shaped <obnapiform>/

5. urceolate/

6. oblong/

7. elliptic/

8. sub-globose/

9. clavate/

Ovary: the expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds.

Ovate: egg-shaped in outline and attached at the broad end.

Ureceolate: hollow and narrowed at the mouth like an urn or pitcher.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

Elliptic: in the shape of an ellipse, or a narrow oval, broadest at the middle and narrower at the two equal ends.

Sub-globose: approaching spherical.

Clavate: club-shaped.

#418. Ovaries <beak shape>/

1. gradually tapering to style <no evident transition>/

2. slightly bulged below style <slight curve to style>/

3. abruptly tapering to style/

Ovary: the expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

BEAK: narrowed unswollen portion of the ovary.

Style is the slender stalk that connects the stigma to the ovary.

STIGMA: the part of the pistil which receives the pollen.

#419. Ovaries <general hairiness>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

3. with sessile glands/

Ovary: the portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds). Glabrous: without hairs.

#420. Ovaries <pubescence type> /

1. puberulent/

2. pubescent/

3. pilose/

4. villous/

5. tomentose/

6. woolly/

7. short-silky <less than 0.5 mm>/

8. long-silky <greater than 0.5 mm>/

9. strigose/

Ovary: the swollen portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

Puberulent: minutely pubescent or downy.

Pubescent: covered with short, fine hairs.

Pilose: bearing sparse, long, soft, straight, shaggy hairs.

Villous: bearing dense or moderately dense, long, soft, shaggy, but not matted hairs.

Tomentose: with short, dense interwoven hairs.

Woolly: bearing long, dense, soft hairs that are tangled.

Silky: straight, appressed, shiny hairs.

Strigose: covered with straight, stiff hairs or bristles.

#421. Ovary hairs <density>/

1. in patches or streaks/

2. sparse/

3. moderately dense/

4. very dense/

Ovary: the expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

Sparse: surface mostly visible.

Moderately dense: surface about 50% visible.

Dense: surface completely obscured.

#422. Ovary hairs <colour> /

1. white <only> <translucent>/

2. <both> white and rust-coloured/

3. brown <only>/

Ovary: the expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

#423. Ovary hairs <orientation to surface>/

1. appressed/

2. spreading/

Ovary: the expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

Appressed: hair pressed close or flat against the branchlet.

Spreading: hair standing out from the surface.

#424. Ovary hairs <shape>/

1. straight/

2. wavy/

3. crinkled/

4. branched/

5. stellate/

Ovary: the expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

Wavy: in loosely spaced waves.

Crinkled: in tightly spaced waves.

Branched: hairs dividing irregularly.

Stellate: hairs radiating like the points of a star.

#425. Ovary hairs <type>/

1. flattened/

2. ribbon-like/

3. cylindrical/

4. with thickened bases/

Ovary: the expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules (immature seeds).

Flattened: hair edges appear thickened, and hairs sometimes refract light.

Ribbon-like: hair edges flat and refracting light.

Styles, stigmas, and placentation

#426. Styles <presence>/

1. present /

2. absent/

Style: the narrowed portion of the gynoecium connecting the stigma (top portion) to the ovary.

#427. Styles <number, when carpels fused>/

Style: the narrowed portion of the gynoecium connecting the stigma (top portion) to the ovary.

#428. Styles <fusion, when styles greater than one per ovary>/

1. free/

2. partially fused/

3. completely fused/

Character significant in Potentilla.

Style: the narrowed portion of the pistil (gynoecium) connecting the stigma (top portion) to the ovary.

Free: not attached to other styles.

Partially fused: one style appears to emerge from the ovary and then branched into two or more.

#429. Styles <relative length, used in Cyperaceae>/

1. thick and short/

2. slender, not extending beyond the beak/

3. slender, extending beyond the beak/

4. long and thick/

#430. Styles <length>/

mm long/

Style is the narrowed portion of the pistil (gynoecium) connecting the stigma (top portion) to the ovary.

#431. Styles <shape or angle of the sides of the style, significant in Potentilla>/

1. conical <tapering sides>/

2. straight <sides parallel>/

#432. Styles basal portion <surface>/

1. smooth <without any roughness>/

2. covered with short papillae, less than 0.1 mm high/

3. covered with long papillae, 0.1 mm high or higher/

4. with hairs at the base/

#433. Stigmas per ovary <number>/

Stigma: the top portion of the gynoecium which is receptive to pollen.

#434. Stigmatic disc shape/

1. narrowly peaked with distinctly decurrent rays/

2. flat or convex (but not peaked) rays not decurrent or only slightly so/

#435. Stigma lobes <length>/

mm long/

Stigma: the top portion of the pistil which is receptive to pollen.

#436. Placentation <when carpels fused>/

1. axile/

2. parietal/

3. apical/

4. basal/

5. free central/

Placentation: the arrangement or configuration of the placentae (the position(s) on the ovary bearing ovules).

Ovary: the expanded basal portion of the pistil that contains the ovules.

OVULE: an immature seed.

Locule: a cavity containing the seed(s) in an ovary.

Axile: ovules attached to the central axis of an ovary with two or more locules.

Parietal: ovules positioned along the walls of the ovary.

Apcial: ovules located at the tip of the ovary.

Basal: ovules located at the base of the ovary.

Free central: ovules attached to a central column which is free from the ovule wall except at the base.

#437. Ovules per ovary <number per carpel or gynoecium>/

Ovule: an immature seed.

Carpel: one of the leaf-like units that make up a compound pistil. In apocarpous flowers the number of ovules per carpel is recorded. In syncarpous flowers the number of ovules per gynoecium.

Gynoecium: female portion of the flower.

Perigynia

#438. Fruit <whether surrounded by a perigynium>/

1. surrounded by a perigynium/

2. not surrounded by a perigynium /

Perigynium (plural perigynia) the inflated sac surrounding the ovary in Carex or Kobresia that may be open or closed.

#439. Perigynia <whether fused>/

1. open on one side/

2. with a slit running down the beak on the abaxial side through which the style protrudes/

3. fused to the apex except for a small aperture through which the style protrudes/

#440. Perigynia <shape>/

1. globose, or sub-globose/

2. lanceolate/

3. broadly ovate/

4. obovate/

5. elliptic/

Perigynium (plural perigynia) the inflated sac surrounding the ovary in Carex or Kobresia that may be open or closed.

Globose: rounded like a ball.

Sub-lanceolate longer than wide, relatively narrow and tapering to a point at the top.

Broadly-ovate: longer than wide, distinctly rounded with the widest point below the middle.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

Elliptic: in the shape of an ellipse, or a narrow oval; broadest at the middle and narrower at the two equal ends.

#441. Perigynia <height>/

mm long/

Height: measured from the base of the perigynia excluding the length of any stipe.

#442. Perigynia <width>/

mm wide/

#443. Perigynia <position of at least the lower perigynia relative to stem of spike>/

1. erect or ascending/

2. reflexed/

3. spreading at maturity/

Erect: vertical or almost vertical.

Ascending: within the range of angles between erect and divergent.

Reflexed: bent back, and pointing downwards.

#444. Perigynia <colour>/

1. black/

2. straw-coloured/

3. golden brown/

4. brown/

5. green/

6. whitish/

#445. Perigynia <texture>/

1. membranous <thin and almost translucent>/

2. leathery/

Membranous: thin, soft flexible, and more or less translucent, like a membrane.

Leathery: firm, like soft to stiffish leather.

#446. Perigynia <surface lustre>/

1. surface glossy/

2. surface dull/

glossy: with a shine similar to full gloss paint.

Dull: lacking a shine, similar to flat paint.

#447. Perigynia <indumentum>/

1. glabrous/

2. hairy/

3. scabrous/

#448. Perigynia <whether tuberculate>/

1. tuberculate/

2. papillose/

3. serrulate/

Tuberculate: with knobby projections.

Glandular: with glands. Glandular hairs: hairs that have often glands on the ends. Glands small globular structures that secret fluids and are best seen at 10x magnification.

Papillose: with minute, nipple-shaped structures.

#449. Perigynia <visibility of nerves on the abaxial, ventral surface>/

1. strongly veined/

2. faintly veined/

3. appearing veinless/

Nerve: vein and associated tissue.

Strongly nerved: with nerves clearly visible.

#450. Perigynia <whether inflated>/

1. inflated/

2. not inflated /

Inflated: puffed out, loosely fitting around the achene.

#451. Perigynia <whether keeled>/

1. not keeled /

2. with 2 keels/

3. with 3 keels/

Keel: a raised or pronounced ridge that is often V-shaped.

#452. Perigynia apices/

1. beaked with a long beak/

2. beaked with a short beak/

3. merely conical or rounded <almost beakless>/

4. without a beak/

Beak: a firm prolonged slender tip.

#453. Perigynia apex <beak>/

1. deeply bidentate/

2. oblique, becoming slightly bidentate/

3. not bidentate or oblique /

Oblique: slanting.

Bidentate: having two teeth.

Fruit

#454. Fruit <whether stalked>/

1. sessile/

2. stalked/

#455. Fruit stalk <peduncle length in fruit>/

mm long/

#456. Fruit <calyx persisting>/

1. with calyx persisting/

2. without calyx persisting /

3. surrounded by a perianth persisting as bristles/

This character refers to whether the sepals are present or not when the plant is in the fruiting stage.

Calyx: the collective term for all the sepals; the outer perianth whorl.

Pappus: peculiar modified calyx of a single floret, borne on the ovary (persisting in fruit), being plumose, bristle-like, and scales.

#457. Fruit <texture at maturity>/

1. fleshy <at least partly>/

2. dry/

Fruit: a ripened ovary and any other structures that are attached and ripen with it.

Fleshy: thick and pulpy; succulent.

DRY: without water.

#458. Fruit <type>/

1. a legume/

2. a loment/

3. a capsule/

4. a silique/

5. cypselas/

6. an achene/

7. a nut/

8. a berry/

9. a drupe/

10. a schizocarp/

11. a caryopsis/

12. a samara/

13. a mericarp/

14. an aggregate of drupelets/

15. an aggregate of nutlets/

16. an aggregate of achenes/

17. an aggregate of follicles/

Fruit: a ripened ovary and any other structures which are attached and ripen with it.

Legume: a dry, dehiscent fruit derived from a one carpel and usually opening along two lines of dehiscence, as does a pea pod.

Loment: a pod constricted between the seeds, and breaking into 1-seeded portions.

Capsule: a dry, dehiscent fruit derived from more than one carpel and splitting into as many segments as there are carpels.

Silique: a dry, dehiscent fruit, with two carpels separated by a septum as in the Draba family. Fruits split from the bottom upwards.

Cypsela: a small, dry, indehiscent one seeded achene-like fruit of the Asteraceae composed of a gynoecium with two carpels and a s ingle basal ovule.

Achene: a small, dry, indehiscent one seeded fruit with tight thin pericarp: the product of a single ovary.

Nut: a hard, dry, indehiscent fruit, the product of more than one carpel often with a single seed.

Berry: a fleshy fruit, with several or many seeds, as a tomato.

Schizocarp: a fruit that splits up without the opening of the carpel into one-seeded units (mericarps). Mericarp: a fruit composed of more than one schizocarp.

Caryopsis: the indehiscent fruit in grasses.

Samara: a winged 1-seeded indehiscent achene or nut.

Aggregate fruits: the products of apocarpous ovaries composed of many small units.

Aggregate of fleshy druplets: very small drupes that maybe aggregated into a fleshy fruit such as a raspberry. Drupe: a fleshy, indehiscent fruit with a stony endocarp surrounding usually a single seed, such as a peach. Sometimes several seeds are encased together, such as in the bearberry, making it berry-like.

Aggregate of nutlets: a fruiting head composed of many small nutlets, each a one-seeded, dry, indehiscent fruit, the product of a apocsingle carpel.

Aggregate of achenes: a fruiting head composed of many small, dry, indehiscent one seeded fruit with tight thin pericarp: each the product of a single carpel.

An aggregate of folicules:each unit a dry, dehiscent (opening at maturity or when ripe) fruit, derived from one carpel, that splits along a single side.

#459. Fruit <shape>/

1. spherical/

2. ellipsoid/

3. ovoid/

4. elongate-cylindrical/

5. obovate/

6. obconical/

7. oblong/

8. clavate/

9. urceolate/

10. conical/

11. broadly lanceolate/

12. bell-shaped/

13. lanceolate/

Fruit: a ripened ovary and any other structures which are attached and ripen with it.

Spherical: globe-shaped.

Ellipsoid: In the shape of a narrow oval; broadest in the middle, and narrow at the two ends.

OVOID: egg-shaped.

Elongate-cylindrical: cylinder-shaped; elongate and round in cross section.

Obovate: inversely ovate, with the attachment at the narrow end.

Oblong: two to four times longer than wide with nearly parallel sides.

Clavate: club-shaped.

Ureceolate: urn-shaped, rounded at the base, cylindrical in the body and wider at the apex.

Conical: shaped like a cone, rounded and wider at the base, tapering towards the apex.

Broadly lanceolate: lance-shaped; much longer than wide, with the widest point below the middle.

#460. Capsule <length to width ratio>/

1. 3–4 times longer than broad/

2. 2–2.5 times longer than broad/

3. 1–1.5 times longer than broad/

#461. Capsule <shape>/

1. obovoid to barrel-shaped/

2. obovoid to subglobose/

3. obconical to broadly obconical/

#462. Fruit <colour>/

1. orange/

2. black/

3. brown/

4. red/

5. purple/

6. blue/

7. green at maturity/

8. golden brown/

9. straw-coloured/

10. yellowish/

Fruit: a ripened ovary and any other structures that are attached and ripen with it.

#463. Fruit <length or height>/

mm long/

Fruit: a ripened ovary and any other structures that are attached and ripen with it. A fruit has two scars: one the point of attachment to the plant, the other the point of attachment of the style.

Length or height: the distance between the point of attachment to the plant and the point of attachment of the style.

#464. Fruit <width>/

mm wide/

Fruit: a ripened ovary and any other structures that are attached and ripen with it. A fruit has two scars: one the point of attachment to the plant, the other the point of attachment of the style.

Width: the greatest dimension at right angles to the line between the point of attachment to the plant and the point of attachment of the style.

#465. Fruit <hairs>/

1. glabrous /

2. hairy/

3. glabrescent/

4. covered with papillae/

Fruit: a ripened ovary and any other structures that are attached and ripen with it.

Glabrous: without hairs.

Glabrescent: initially hairy but becoming sparsely hairy of glabrous (smooth) with age.

Papillae: pimple like protuberances.

#466. Capsule trichomes/

1. dark brown/

2. light to mid-brown/

#467. Fruit surface <venation whether visible>/

1. venation reticulate/

2. appearing veinless/

3. venation ribbed/

Reticulate: with a network pattern.

Ribbed: prominent veins causing ridges usually lengthwise.

#468. Fruit <whether flattened; mainly for Fabaceae>/

1. distinctly flattened/

2. not distinctly flattened/

Distinctly flat: laterally compressed.

#469. Fruit <capsule> mouth <whether curved>/

1. straight/

2. curved/

#470. Fruit <dehiscence>/

1. dehiscent/

2. indehiscent/

3. schizocarpous/

Fruit: a ripened ovary and any other structures that are attached and ripen with it.

Dehiscent: opening at maturity or when ripe.

Indehiscent: not opening at maturity along definite lines or by pores.

Schizocarpous: opening at maturity into separate one-seeded segments (carpels) at maturity, instead of along dehiscent lines, e.g. maple seeds, umbels.

#471. Fruit <how the fruit opens>/

1. opening with teeth at the top of the capsule/

2. splitting to the base into separate segments/

3. opening at the apex and partially or fully down one side/

4. opening with apical pores/

5. shedding the outer walls to expose a thin inner wall, with the seeds attached at the margins on either side/

6. splitting around the middle releasing a cup-shaped cap/

#472. Fruit <capsule> teeth <number of>/

#473. Achenes <general shape>/

1. lenticular <biconvex>/

2. trigonous/

3. subterete/

Lenticular: Lens-shaped.

Trigonous: a body triangular in cross section but with obtuse angles.

Subterete: approaching circular in cross section.

#474. Achenes <size relative to perigynia>/

1. filling the perigynia/

2. not filling the upper part of the perigynia/

Achene: a small, nut-like fruit.

#475. Legume <number of locules>/

1. unilocular/

2. nearly 2-locular by intrusion of placenta/

#476. Legume valves <whether twisted>/

1. twisted/

2. straight/

#477. Loment margins <whether winged>/

1. wingless/

2. winged with auricles/

#478. Styles <whether modifying and persisting>/

1. modified and persisting <usually for fruit dispersal>/

2. persisting but not modified /

In some plants, the style changes structure in the fruiting stage to accommodate the dispersal of seeds, as in mountain avens. In other plants the style withers and may persist but does not assist seed dispersal.

Style:: the narrowed portion of the pistil (gynoecium) connecting the stigma to the ovary.

Caducous: the style falling early before the fruit is mature, or present and withered.

#479. Styles <shape of persisting style in fruit>/

1. becoming hooked/

2. becoming plumose/

3. remaining straight/

Style: the narrowed portion of the pistil (gynoecium) connecting the stigma to the ovary.

Hooked: curved or with barbs that assist with animal dispersal.

Plumose: feathery, or fluffy.

#480. Styles persisting in fruit <length in fruit>/

mm long/

#481. Cypselas beak <diameter>/

1. stout, shorter or similar in length to the body/

2. slender, often much longer than the body/

#482. Cypselas surface <surface>/

1. smooth/

2. rugulose/

3. spinulose/

#483. <Position of> cypselas surface <texture>/

1. in upper half/

2. throughout/

Seeds

#484. Seeds <number per gynoecium>/

Seed: a ripened ovule. A seed has a single scar where it was attached to the placenta.

#485. Seeds <length>/

mm long/

Seed: a ripened ovule. A seed has a single scar where it was attached to the placenta. The longest dimension is measured. This in not necessarily the distance between the scar and the opposite surface.

#486. Seeds <colour>/

1. black/

2. brown/

3. white/

4. yellowish/

Seed: a ripened ovule.

#487. Seeds surfaces <texture>/

1. smooth/

2. hairy/

3. spinose/

4. verrucose/

5. ridged/

6. winged /

7. reticulate/

8. tuberculate/

9. rugose/

Seed: a ripened ovule.

Smooth: an even, glabrous surface.

Spinose: with spines, which are stiff, slender, sharp-pointed structures arising from below the epidermis.

Verrucose: covered with small wart-like rounded processes that are wider than high.

Ridged: with folds (ridges).

Winged: possessing wing-like structures.

Reticulate: with a network pattern.

Tuberculate: covered with small wart-like rounded processes that are higher than wide.

Rugose: wrinkled.

Chromosome information

#488. <Cytology> 2n =/

#489. <Chromosome number reference: author and date>/

#490. Supposed basic chromosome number of family/

#491. Ploidy levels recorded/

Phenology

#492. Phenology: <flowering time, pollination, fruit or seed dispersal - should be spilt into two characters> /

Indigenous knowledge

#493. <Indigenous knowledge:>/

Taxon as an environmental indicator

#494. <Taxon as an environmental indicator>/

Ecology and habitat

#495. Elevation/

m/

#496. Substrates: <habitat in the Arctic islands>/

1. wet meadows/

2. hummocks <frost boils>/

3. snow patches/

4. around the margins of ponds/

5. depressions of low-centre polygons/

6. marshes/

7. along streams/

8. river terraces/

9. lakeshores /

10. tundra/

11. slopes/

12. ridges/

13. cliffs/

14. seashores/

15. dry meadows/

16. barrens/

17. flood plains/

Snowpatch: The snowpatch is a more arctic plant habitat than the snowbed. It is usually a rather shallow depression in the landscape, where owing to the prevailing wind a snowdrift forms regularly each winter, affording protection for the plant cover beneath it. The snowdrift melts early and does not keep the habitat moist throughout the growing season. In the high-arctic landscape, plants with woody aerial stems such as willows, ground birch and heath are found chiefly on snowpatch habits. A snowbed is more usual in an arctic-alpine situation, where owing to topographical features, large masses of snow accumulate each winter. The plants growing on snowbed habitats enjoy the protection afforded by the snow cover and are assured of continuing water supply from the melting snow throughout the growing season but must be adapted to an even shorter growing season than those occupying more exposed habitats. In unfavorable seasons the snowbed habitat may remain covered by snow so late that the plants growing there may not have sufficient time to ripen their fruits, or they may not even have time to flower. For this reason only certain species of plants, can successfully occupy snowbed habitats.

#497. Substrates: <drainage>/

1. aquatic/

2. imperfectly drained moist areas/

3. seepage slopes/

4. solifluction slopes/

5. dry/

6. moderately well-drained areas/

Aquatic: growing in water.

#498. Substrates: <particle size>/

1. rocks/

2. gravel/

3. sand/

4. silt/

5. clay/

6. till/

7. moss/

#499. Substrates: <organic content>/

1. with low organic content/

2. with high organic content/

3. peat/

#500. Substrates: <ionic character>/

1. acidic/

2. calcareous/

3. halophytic/

4. nitrophilous/

5. non-calcareous/

6. non-littoral/

7. circum-neutral/

Acidic: growing in acidic soils.

CalcareousS: limestone derived alkaline soil.

Halophytic: soil with high salt content.

Nitrogenous: soil enriched with nitrogen; e.g. old dung pile.

Non-litoral: preferring drier conditions, usually away from the coast.

#501. <Habitat notes:>/

#502. <Distribution notes:>/

North American distribution

#503. <Distribution in the North American Arctic>/

1. Alaska/

2. Yukon/

3. Northwest Territories Islands/

4. continental Northwest Territories/

5. Nunavut Islands/

6. continental Nunavut/

7. northern Quebec/

8. Labrador/

9. Newfoundland/

#504. Range in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago/

1. widespread/

2. limited/

3. moderate /

#505. <Abundance in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago>/

1. common/

2. uncommon/

3. rare/

#506. <North American phytogeography>/

1. arctic <widespread>/

2. High Arctic <mainly restricted to the islands>/

3. Low Arctic <mainly restricted to the continent>/

4. alpine/

5. boreal/

6. coastal <mainly restricted to the coasts>/

#507. Arctic islands: <distribution>/

1. Baffin/

2. Devon/

3. Ellesmere/

4. Axel Heiberg/

5. Amund Ringnes/

6. Ellef Ringnes/

7. Parry islands/

8. Cornwallis/

9. Banks/

10. Victoria/

11. Prince of Wales/

12. Somerset/

13. King William/

14. Southampton/

15. Coats/

16. <small islands> /

Northern hemisphere distribution

#508. <Northern hemisphere distribution: biogeographical>/

1. circumpolar/

2. circumboreal/

3. amphi-Atlantic/

4. amphi-Beringian/

5. North American <not occurring outside North America or Greenland>/

6. Cordilleran <with a major centre of distribution in the Western Cordillera> /

7. Siberian/

8. Pacific <occurring near the coastal regions of the Pacific ocean, but not Cordilleran> /

#509. <Distribution given in The Panarctic Flora Checklist, Elven et al. 2003>/

#510. <Floristic regions as defined by PAF: outside Canada>/

1. Northern Iceland <Ic (ICE + NOR) TDWG: Northern Europe>/

2. Northern Fennoscandian <FN NOR + RUS: TDWG: Northern Europe>/

3. Kanin–Pechora <KP Kanin-Pechora (RUS)>/

4. Svalbard – Franz Joseph Land <SF (NOR + RUS)>/

5. Polar Ural – Novaya Zemlya <UN(RUS)>/

6. Yamal–Gydan <YG (SIB)>/

7. Taimyr – Severnaya Zemlya <TM (SIB)>/

8. Anabar–Olenyok <AO (SIB)>/

9. Kharaulakh <Kh (SIB)>/

10. Yana–Kolyma <YK (SIB)>/

11. West Chukotka <CW (REF)>/

12. Wrangel Island <WI (REF)>/

13. South Chukotka <CS(REF)>/

14. East Chukotka <CE (RFE)>/

15. West Alaska <AW (ALA)>/

16. North Alaska – Yukon <AN (ALA + CAN)>/

17. <Subdivision of Arctic Canada> Central Canada <CC (CAN)>/

18. <Subdivision of Arctic Canada> Labrador – Hudson Bay <LH (CAN)>/

19. Ellesmere Land – Peary Land <EP(CAN + GRL)>/

20. West Greenland <GW (GRL)>/

21. East Greenland <GE (GRL)>/

#511. Zone <vegetation zones as defined by PAF>/

1. A <high-arctic tundra>/

2. B <northern arctic tundras>/

3. C <southern arctic tundras>/

4. D <northern hypo-arctic tundras>/

5. E. <southern hypo-arctic tundras>/

6. N. <bordering boreal or alpine areas>/

Economic uses

#512. <Economic uses:>/

General notes

#513. <General notes:>/

Metadata

#514. Morphological data <whether recorded>/

1. recorded /

2. not recorded/

3. recording in progress/

#515. <Whether accepted in this study>/

1. accepted in this study /

2. not accepted in this study <or, a synonym>/

3. not yet recorded on arctic islands, but probably in the PAF arctic area/

4. grass species added as occurring in arctic continental North America/

5. taxonomic status under consideration/

#516. <Taxonomic level>/

1. species /

2. genus/

3. family/

4. higher level classification <e.g. order or class>/

#517. Notes to be excluded/

#518. Flora of North America project treatment/

Information supplied by Dr. P. Ball, University of Toronto.

#519. <Number of> genera in world/

#520. <Number of> species in world/

#521. <Names of> genera in study region:/

#522. The taxon <Status in Porsild (1957)>/

1. present in Porsild (1957) /

2. was suggested by Porsild (1957) and has been found since then/

3. was suggested by Porsild (1957) as one that should be looked for in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, but in 2003 we were unaware of any records that confirmed that it has been found there/

4. was not anticipated by Porsild (1957) but has been found since then/

5. name was used by Porsild but his concept of this taxon is questioned: he was probably referring to the same plants/

6. or Porsild's concept of it is questioned. This name is no longer considered applicable to taxa occurring in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago/

7. not known to be present on the Arctic islands, although literature references have suggested that the taxon was present/

8. suggested by the Panarctic Flora checklist, 2003, as a taxon that should be looked for in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago/

9. deliberately introduced/

10. possibly accidentally introduced/

#523. Name in 2005, compared to Porsild (1957):/

1. no change/

2. change in genus name/

3. change in species name/

4. change in subspecies name/

5. change in status from subspecies to variety/

6. change in status from variety to subspecies/

7. subspecies, variety, or hybrid now recognized/

8. former subspecies or varietal status has been dropped or name has changed/

9. change in family name/

10. former species reduced to a subspecies/

11. two taxa previously recognized have been merged into one/

#524. <Whether to be released at this time>/

1. to be released /

2. not to be released/

Illustrations

#525. <Reserved space for illustrations>/

This character is used as a placeholder for taxon image information in natural-language descriptions. The images and associated information are stored in a Taxon images directive. Code used to indicate subject of image:

A = anatomy

B = black and white drawing

E = environment or habitat

C = close up of plant

F = flower

I = inflorescence

L = leaf or leaves

M = map

P = plate, where more than one picture is combined into a plate

R = roots

S = herbarium specimen

T = type specimen

U = fruit

X = cimage graphic.

#526. File name for descriptions and images:/

This character is used to construct file names for automatically generated descriptions. For example, if the character is recorded as ‘wxyz’, the descriptions are in files ‘wxyz.rtf’ and ‘wxyzhtm’. It is also used as the basis for the names of image files, for example, ‘wxyz2.jpg’

Status of mapping data

#527. <Status of mapping data>/

1. Map done and adequate/

2. Map done but probably missing important records <indicate where>/

3. Map needs name change/

4. Map needs to be done from scratch/

5. Family or Genus taxon, not being mapped/

6. Taxon only known from continental North America. No map being produced at this time./

7. Map to be redone as a result of May, 2005 information./

Classification

#528. Subclass/

1. Dicotyledonae <Magnoliopsida>/

2. Monocotyledonae <Liliopsida>/

#529. Dahlgren’s Superorder <of Dicotyledonae-modified from Dahlgren 1980)>/

1. Magnoliiflorae/

2. Ranunculiflorae/

3. Caryophylliflorae/

4. Polygoniflorae/

5. Malviflorae/

6. Primuliflorae/

7. Rosiflorae/

8. Fabiflorae/

9. Myrtiflorae/

10. Rutiflorae/

11. Asteriflorae/

12. Solaniflorae/

13. Corniflorae/

14. Gentianiflorae/

15. Lamiflorae/

16. Nymphaeiflorae/

17. Violflorae/

#530. Dahlgren’s Superorder <of Monocots: Dahlgren, Clifford and Yeo 1985>/

1. Alismatiflorae/

2. Liliiflorae/

3. Commeliniflorae/

4. Bromeliiflorae/

#531. Dahlgren’s Order <of Ranunculiflorae>/

1. Ranunculales/

2. Papaverales/

#532. Dahlgren’s Order <of Caryophylliflorae>/

1. Caryophyllales/

#533. Dahlgren’s Order <of Malviflorae>/

1. Plumbaginales/

#534. Dahlgren’s Order <of Violiflorae>/

1. Salicales/

2. Capparales/

#535. Dahlgren’s Order <of Primuliflorae>/

1. Primulales/

#536. Dahlgren’s Order <of Rosiflorae>/

1. Fagales/

2. Juglandales/

3. Saxifragales/

4. Rosales/

#537. Dahlgren’s Order <of Fabiflorae>/

1. Fabales/

#538. Dahlgren’s Order <of Myrtiflorae>/

1. Myrtales/

2. Haloragales/

#539. Dahlgren’s Order <of Rutiflorae>/

1. Geraniales/

#540. Dahlgren’s Order <of Solaniflorae>/

1. Solanales/

2. Boraginales/

#541. Dahlgren’s Order <of Asteriflorae>/

1. Campanulales/

2. Asterales/

#542. Dahlgren’s Order <of Corniflorae>/

1. Ericales/

#543. Dahlgren’s Order <of Gentianiflorae>/

1. Gentianales/

#544. Dahlgren’s Order <of Lamiiflorae>/

1. Scrophulariales/

2. Hippuridales/

#545. Dahlgren’s Order <of Alismatiflorae: Dahlgren, Clifford and Yeo 1985>/

1. Zosterales/

#546. Dahlgren’s Order <of Liliiflorae: Dahlgren, Clifford and Yeo 1985>/

1. Liliales/

2. Orchidales/

#547. Dahlgren’s Order <of Commeliniflorae: Dahlgren, Clifford and Yeo 1985>/

1. Cyperales/

2. Poales/

#548. Cronquist’s Subclass <of Magnoliopsida: 1981>/

1. Magnoliidae/

2. Hamamelidae/

3. Caryophyllidae/

4. Dilleniidae/

5. Rosidae/

6. Asteridae/

#549. Cronquist’s Order <of Magnoliidae>/

1. Ranunculales/

2. Papaverales/

#550. Cronquist’s Order <of Hamamelidae>/

1. Fagales/

#551. Cronquist’s Order <of Caryophyllidae>/

1. Caryophyllales/

2. Polygonales/

3. Plumbaginales/

#552. Cronquist’s Order <of Dilleniidae>/

1. Dilleniales/

2. Salicales/

3. Capparales/

4. Ericales/

5. Diapensiales/

6. Primulales/

#553. Cronquist’s Order <of Rosidae>/

1. Rosales/

2. Fabales/

3. Haloragales/

4. Myrtales/

5. Linales/

#554. Cronquist’s Order <of Asteridae>/

1. Gentianales/

2. Solanales/

3. Lamiales/

4. Callitrichales/

5. Plantaginales/

6. Scrophulariales/

7. Campanulales/

8. Asterales/

#555. Takhtajan’s Subclass <of Magnoliopsida: 1980>/

1. Ranunculidae/

2. Hamamelidae/

3. Caryophyllidae/

4. Dilleniidae/

5. Rosidae/

6. Asteridae/

#556. Takhtajan’s Superorder <of Dicots>/

1. Magnolianae/

2. Rafflesianae/

3. Ranunculanae/

4. Hamamelidanae/

5. Caryophyllanae/

6. Plumbaginanae/

7. Dillenianae/

8. Ericanae/

9. Rosanae/

10. Myrtanae/

11. Rutanae/

12. Asteranae/

13. Gentianaceae/

14. Laminae/

#557. Takhtajan’s Order <of Ranunculidae>/

1. Ranunculales/

2. Papaverales/

#558. Takhtajan’s Order <of Hamamelididae>/

1. Trochodendrales/

2. Fagales/

3. Cercidiphyllales/

4. Eupteleales/

5. Didymelales/

6. Hamamelidales/

7. Eucommiales/

8. Urticales/

9. Barbeyales/

10. Casuarinales/

11. Balanopales/

12. Leitneriales/

13. Myricales/

14. Juglandales/

#559. Takhtajan’s Order <of Caryophyllidae>/

1. Caryophyllales/

2. Polygonales/

3. Plumbaginales/

#560. Takhtajan’s Order <of Dilleniidae>/

1. Dilleniales/

2. Capparales/

3. Salicales/

4. Ericales/

5. Primulales/

#561. Takhtajan’s Order <of Rosidae>/

1. Saxifragales/

2. Rosales/

3. Fabales/

4. Myrtales/

5. Geraniales/

#562. Takhtajan’s Order <of Asteridae>/

1. Gentianales/

2. Polemoniales/

3. Scrophulariales/

4. Campanulales/

5. Asterales/

Working comments

#563. <Working comments>/

#564. <Date, source material>/

This character gives the date when the data were gathered and the source of the data. Data for some species were based on published descriptions (citations given) supplemented by herbarium specimens. Others are based completely on original observations. The herbaria and sometimes states or provinces mainly sampled are given.

#565. Section used by Porsild (1957):/

#566. PAF: <comments on name, September 2000>/

#567. <Date of proof reading and new release to nearest month/year>/

#568. Number of images <without map>/

#569. <Name used in Flora of North America, if treatment has been published>/

#570. <Synonymy, according to Kartesz (1994), Hultén, (1968), Porsild (1957), Polunin (1940)>/

General appearance

#571. <Plants general appearance>/

MAJOR WORK POSSIBLY DESIRABLE HERE to bring characters in descriptions into line with EMPCHARM, or else move the character to working comments. Plant appearance: as seen in living plants growing in a typical Arctic habitat and not stressed by pollution or other abnormal environmental factor. Be aware that plant appearance is often changed in herbarium specimens. MOST OF THE REST OF THESE NOTES CAN POSSIBLY BE DELETED. SINGLE-STEMMED: as in an annual plant, or perennial that may only produce one stem per growing season in the Arctic.

LOOSE CLUSTERS: two or more stems growing loosely together and upward from the base. These are often plants with short rhizomes.

TUFTED: or CAESPITOSE: with several stems, growing tightly together and upward from the base, in tufts.

CUSHION-LIKE: rounded, compact, plants; stems not visible.

MATTED: flattened, spread out, stems tangled or interwoven.

BASAL ROSETTES: dense radiating clusters of leaves at or near ground level.

Caudex: a short main stem zone, at or below ground level. It is often present in plants that appear to have an abrupt transition between the roots, usually a tap root and the leaves.

BRANCHING STEMS: main stem with distinct branches at intervals along the stem.

TRAILING stems: stems arising from a root zone and growing along the surface of the ground for considerable lengths relative to the size of the leaves.

#572. Plants <size>/

1. less than 15 cm high/

2. more than 15 cm high/

Plant height of 15 cm, is approximately the height of a lemming as used in Mallory and Aiken (2004). It reflects a person's initial observation where the plant is growing.

Additional characters

#573. <Brief notes (extracted from ‘general notes’):>/

#574. IUNC Status/

1. Extinct (EX)/

2. Extinct in the wild (EW)/

3. Vulnerable (VU)/

4. Critically endanagered (CR)/

5. Vulnerable (VU)/

6. Near threatedned (NT)/

7. Least concern (LC)/

8. Data deficient (DD)/

9. Not evaluated (NE)/

EX.: Extinct: No reasonable doubt that the last individual has died.

EW: Extinct in the wild: when it is know only to survive in cultivation.

CR: Critically endangered: when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E. for Critically Endangered (see Section V).

EN: Endangered: when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E. for Endangered and it is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

NT: Near threatened: A taxon is Near threatened when it has been evaluated against the criteria but does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered or Vulnerable now.

LC.: Least concern: A taxon is Least concenr when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, or Near Threatened.

DD: Data deficient: when there is inadequate information to m ake a direct, or indirect, assessment of its risk of extinction based of its risk of extinction based on its distribution.

NE: Not evaluated: when it has not yet been evaluated against the criteria.


Contents