Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

Solidago multiradiata Aiton

English: Northern goldenrod,

French: Verge d'or à rayons nombreux.

Asteraceae (Compositae), Daisy family.

Published in Hort. Kew. ed.1, 3: 218. 1789.

Type: Canada: Labrador, 1765, leg. Moravian missionaries, possibly Schloezer. Holotype: BM.

Vegetative morphology. Plants 5–20 cm high (-30 cm high, continental North America); perennial herbs; caespitose, or not caespitose. Taproot present. Ground level or underground stems vertical, or absent; elongate, or compact; 1.5–6 mm wide. Caudex present (sub-ligneous, sometimes much branched). Aerial stems erect. Aerial stem trichomes appressed, or spreading. Leaves heterophyllous (basal leaves with petioles; upper leaves without), or not heterophyllous (leaves similar in shape); mainly basal, or distributed along the stems; alternate; dying annually and non-persistent, or marcescent. Petioles present (basal leaves), or absent (flowering stem); 0–30 mm long (if applicable); winged, or not winged; flat; hairy; woolly (on the margins). Petiole hairs longer than the diameter of the petiole; spreading; floccose. Leaf blades simple. Leaf blade bases attenuate. Blades 15–50(–120) mm long (CAN 100889), 5–10(–20) mm wide, spreading, lanceolate or oblanceolate or obovate, flat, veins pinnate or veins palmate (prominently reticulate between the veins on the abaxial surface). Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous. Blade margins entire or serrulate, with non-glandular hairs (that vary from short and curved to long and floccose), with teeth toward the apex (if applicable); apices acute, or obtuse.

Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems without leaves. Flowering stems hairy. Flowering stems villous. Flowering stem hairs simple; shorter than the diameter of the flowering stem; white or translucent. Leaf or reduced bract subtending the base of the inflorescence without calloused tip. Flowers in inflorescences. Inflorescences of several flowering heads (in a dense corymb); globose or sub-globose; 15–20(–30) mm wide. Flowering heads 9–10 mm deep; 9–10 mm wide; with disc and ray florets. Pedicels absent. Involucral bracts present. Number of rows 2. Outer involucral bracts mostly green; lying adjacent to the flowers; lanceolate; 2.5–3.5 mm high; 0.4–1.1 mm wide; glabrous (or almost so). Inner involucral bracts lanceolate; 5–7 mm high; 0.6–1 mm wide; margins narrow and scarious, less than one quarter of the bract; apex entire. Flowers radially symmetrical (actinomorphic) (disc florets), or bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic) (ray florets); unisexual (ray florets), or bisexual (disc florets). Sepals represented by a pappus. Pappus with a single row of hairs. Ray florets pappus 4.5–5 mm long. Disc florets pappus 4.5–5 mm long. Petals conventional; fused; 5; yellow; 5–5.5 mm long. Corolla tubular, or funnel-form (disc florets), or flat, strap-like; 5-lobed (disc florets). Ray florets 10–20; limb 6.5–7.5 mm long; limb 1–1.5 mm wide. Stamens 5. Anthers yellow; 1.5–2 mm long. Ovary inferior; carpels 2; syncarpous. Styles 1; 5.5–6 mm long. Stigmas per ovary 2. Placentation basal. Ovules per ovary 1. Fruit sessile; with calyx persisting; dry; cypselas; clavate, or urceolate; yellowish, or brown; 2–2.5 mm long; 0.3–0.5 mm wide (specimens from continental North America); hairy; surface appearing veinless; indehiscent. Seeds 1.

Chromosome information. 2n = 18 and 36.

2n (2x) = 18. Anderson et al. (1974); Semple, in Löve (1981c, northern USA); Morton (1981); Löve and Löve (1982a, Arctic Canada); Semple et al. (1984, 1988, 1992); Chinnappa and Chmielewski (1987, western North America); Semple and Chmielewski (1987); Keil et al. (1988);

2n (4x) = 36. Johnson and Packer (1968, northwestern Alaska, within the range of this subspecies); Dawe and Murray, in Löve (1979, 1981d, central Alaska, both within the range of this subspecies); Keil (1979); Morton (1981); Semple (1985); Chinnappa and Chmielewski (1987, western North America); Semple et al. (1988).

Numerous other counts for both ploidy levels.

Ploidy levels recorded 2x and 4x.

Ecology and habitat. Elevation 1500 m (4500 ft) in Canada N.W.T., Mackenzie Mountains CAN 264985. Substrates: tundra, slopes, ridges, dry meadows; dry; rocks, gravel.

North American distribution. Widely distributed subarctic American species ranging from Alaska to Labrador. Porsild (1957). Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories Islands, continental Northwest Territories, Nunavut Islands, continental Nunavut, northern Quebec, Labrador. Range in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago limited. Rare. Low Arctic. Arctic islands: Baffin, Banks, Victoria (the single record from Victoria Island, mapped by Porsild (1957) did not have a voucher found at CAN in 2005).

Northern hemisphere distribution. North American, or amphi-Beringian (slightly). East Chukotka, West Alaska, North Alaska – Yukon, Central Canada, Labrador – Hudson Bay.

General notes. Solidago multiradiata was found to be an early coloniser of oil spills in Alaska (Kershaw and Kershaw 1986).

Gilbert and Cooke (2001) included S. multiradiata in a review study of dyes from plants: past usage, present understanding, and potential, noting that before the synthesis of dyes from byproducts of the petrochemical industry, all colour was derived from natural sources, including plants.

Illustrations. • Close-up of plant. Note the oblanceolate sessile and corymbose inflorescence of flowering heads. Alaska, Alaska Range, Kantishna, Eldorado Creek. July, 1998. Photograph by R. Elven. No voucher. • Close-up of flowering plant. Plant with numerous flowering heads. Alpine habitat. Alaska, Alaska Range, Donelly Dome. July, 1998. Photograph by R. Elven. No voucher. • Arctic Island Distribution.


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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