Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago
English: Seashore, wild chamomile, arctic chamomile,
French: Matricaire maritime (Baffin Island), matricaire à capitules brunâtres (Nunavik),
Inuktitut: imuguaq, misait, misartaq (Nunavik).
Asteraceae (Compositae), Daisy family.
Published in Acta Bot. Fenn. 75: 9. 1967.
Type: European Russia: Malozemelskaya Tundra ("Terra parva Samojedorum"), leg. F.J.Ruprecht. Holotype: LE.
Synonymy. Matricaria inodora L. var. phaeocephala Rupr., Fl. Samojed. Cisural. 42. 1845.
Tripleurospermum phaeocephalum (Rupr.) Pobed., Bot. Mater. Gerb. Bot. Inst. Komarova Akad. Nauk SSSR 21: 347. 1961.
Matricaria maritima L. subsp. phaeocephala (Rupr.) Rauschert, Folia Geobot. Phytotax. 9: 257. 1974.
Tripleurospermum hookeri Sch. Bip., Bonplandia 1, 16: 151. 1853.
Matricaria hookeri (Sch.Bip.) Hutch., N. Rime-Ringed Sun 252. 1934.
Matricaria ambigua auct., non (Ledeb.) Miyabe.
Vegetative morphology. Plants 10–30(–35) cm high; annual herbs, or biennial herbs. Taproot present (often missing from herbarium specimens; CAN 464472). Ground level or underground stems absent (fibrous roots). Caudex absent (annual plants), or present (a short zone in older plants). Aerial stems branching from a tap at or near ground level into two or more branches, or developed; erect, or ascending. Leaves not heterophyllous; mainly basal (common in plants less than 15 cm high), or distributed along the stems (taller specimens); erect (spreading); alternate; dying annually and non-persistent. Petioles absent (the attenuated narrow bases of the leaf blades may look like petioles). Leaf blades compound. Blades 10–80 mm long, 6–20 mm wide, spreading or divaricate, appearing single-veined or with inconspicuous veins. Blade adaxial surface glabrous. Blade abaxial surface glabrous. Blade margins serrate or crenate (small leaves) or deeply divided (and with secondary blade divisions), with leaves finely bipinnately divided, with teeth all around the blade; degree of incision 90–95%; apices acuminate.
Reproductive morphology. Flowering stems with leaves. Inflorescences solitary heads (usually in arctic plants: sometimes with more than one capitulum in a racemose inflorescence); 2.5–3.5(–4) mm wide. Flowering heads 10–14 mm deep; (20–)25–40 mm wide; with disc and ray florets. Pedicels absent, or subtending flowering heads; glabrous. Involucral bracts present. Number of rows 4–5. Outer involucral bracts with a green central portion and wide dark margins; spreading to erect; ovate (broadly); 3.5–4.5 mm high; 2.5–3 mm wide; glabrous. Inner involucral bracts lanceolate; 4.5–5.5 mm high; 2–2.5 mm wide; margins wide, scarious for at least one quarter of the bract. Flowers radially symmetrical (actinomorphic) (disc florets), or bilaterally symmetrical (zygomorphic) (ray florets); unisexual (ray florets), or bisexual (disc florets). Sepals absent (residual calyx easily overlooked, 0.1–0.2 mm high, persisting as 5 small lobes on the top of the fruit). Petals conventional; fused; 5; white (ray florets a pure white), or yellow (disc florets); 2–3 mm long. Corolla tubular, or funnel-form (disc florets), or urceolate (ray florets); 5-lobed (disc florets). Ray florets 20–30; limb (8–)10–17 mm long; limb 2–5 mm wide. Stamens 5. Anthers yellow; 1–1.2 mm long. Ovary inferior; carpels 2; syncarpous. Styles 1; 2.8–3.4 mm long. Placentation basal. Ovules per ovary 1. Fruit sessile; dry; cypselas; urceolate; brown (pale); 1.5–2.2 mm long; 0.7–1.2 mm wide; glabrous; surface venation ribbed; indehiscent. Seeds 1.
Chromosome information. 2n = 18.
2n (2x) = 18. Hagerup (1941b, northern Europe, M. ambigua); Löve (1954b, northern Europe, T. ambiguum; 1961b, northern Europe, T. ambiguum); Löve and Löve (1956, Iceland?, T. ambiguum); Jørgensen et al. (1958, Greenland, M. ambigua); Johnson and Packer (1968, northwestern Alaska as M. ambigua); Hämet-Ahti and Virrankoski (1970, northern Finland, 'phaeocephalum'); Zhukova et al. (1973 northeastern Asia, 'phaeocephalum'; 1977, northeastern Asia as 'subpolare'); Krogulevich (1976a, northern Siberia, 'phaeocephalum'); Zhukova and Petrovsky (1976, western Chukotka; 1982, 'phaeocephalum'); Dawe and Murray, in Löve (1981a, western Alaska, 'phaeocephalum'); Zhukova (1982, northeastern Asia, as M. maritima); Löve and Löve (1982a, Arctic Canada, 1984).
Ploidy levels recorded 2x.
Ecology and habitat. Elevation 0–50 m (usually). Substrates: seashores (near high tide strand line); moderately well-drained areas; gravel, sand, moss. In moist, sandy places by the seashore and sometimes among grasses near human habitation; sometimes forming dense mats (CAN 258841); beach ridges adjacent to a settlement; flights of coastal marine beaches.
North American distribution. Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories Islands, continental Northwest Territories, Nunavut Islands, continental Nunavut, northern Quebec. Range in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago limited. Uncommon. Low Arctic. Arctic islands: Baffin, Axel Heiberg, Parry islands (Bathurst, Melville, Prince Patrick, and Emerald), Banks, Victoria, Somerset, Southampton.
Northern hemisphere distribution. Circumpolar. Northern Iceland, Northern Fennoscandian, KaninPechora, Polar Ural Novaya Zemlya, YamalGydan, Taimyr Severnaya Zemlya, AnabarOlenyok, Kharaulakh, YanaKolyma, West Chukotka, Wrangel Island, South Chukotka, East Chukotka, West Alaska, North Alaska Yukon, Central Canada, Labrador Hudson Bay, West Greenland, East Greenland.
General notes. When Hämet-Ahti (1967) proposed this name combination, she noted that it was first described at variety level (not as a form as often cited) by Ruprecht (1845) from arctic Russia. Trautvetter (1871, p. 74; not Ruprecht as reported by Porsild 1932, p. 72) considered it a synonym of Pyrethrum ambigum described by Ledebour (1833, p. 118) from the Altai Mountains. Thereafter many later authors have applied the epithet ambigum to this taxon. Hämet-Ahti (1967) had seen the types of both Ruprecht and Trautvetter and noted that although Ruprecht's type specimen is very poor, a comparison of other material from northernmost Russia and the Altai material showed so many differences that she could not regard them as identical. The main differences noted are the narrower bracts that are only slightly triangular, and the shorter leaf segments that are narrower in the Altai specimens than in those from northern Russia. Ecologically, T. maritimum supsp. phaeocephalum is both a seashore and an ruderal plant.
This species was in the genus Matricaria. "According to Schofield (1989) the name "Matricaria" is derived from the Latin roots matrix "mother" and caria "dear". This refers to the long historical use of this genus as medicine for female problems and as a medicine for children. Flower heads of the pineapple weed (Matricaria matricariodes) are widely used as a relaxing tea and medicine by the Dene, Aleuts, and herbalists everywhere. It is said to be an effective insect repellent and to remove fish odours from your hands" (Burt 2000, p. 188).
Ovenden (1986) found Tripleurospermum maritimum (as Matricaria ambigua) to be an early colonising species on the lake bed of Illisarvik, the site of a thermokarst lake that was artificially drained in August 1978.
The entities treated as subspecies in Elven et al. (2003) are sometimes treated as species by Russian botanists. Fertile intermediates are frequent in the Nordic area where the three entities meet Hämet-Ahti (1967). Thus, treatment as subspecies is preferable. However, the circumpolar arctic entity 'phaeocephalum' is slightly more different from the other two subspecies than they are among themselves and also geographically better separated. This may justify treatment of T. phaeocephalum as a species (as fairly regularly done both in Russia and North America).
Illustrations. • Plants on beach at Cape Dorset. Plants growing prostrate on the beach at Cape Dorset, in the zone with Puccinellia phryganodes. Plants common on disturbed ground. 2 August, 2005. Aiken. No Voucher. • Plants growing in shelter of rock. Tripleurospermum plants (left) growing beside rock with Poa glauca (front) and Taraxacum with small "burnt-orange" heads (right). Nunavut, Baffin Island, Cape Dorset. 4 August, 2005. Aiken. No voucher. • Habitat. Plants growing with Draba corymbosa just above high tide line on the beach. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Cape Dorset. 4 August, 2005. Aiken. No voucher. • Habitat: Iqaluit. Plant near the marker and a plant with flowers post-anthesis in the background. Only location known in Iqaluit in 2006. Nunavut, Baffin Island, Iqaluit, growing behind the Anglican Church triplex. 20 August, 2006. Aiken. No voucher. • Surface view of plant: Dorset. Plant growing on almost bare ground with poppy and Poa glauca. Baffin Island, Cape Dorset. 2 August, 2005. Aiken. No voucher. • Habitat. White daisy-like flowers (like the one beside the marker) growing in a wet meadow with yellow Tephroseris palustris susbsp. congesta. Nunavut, Rankin Inlet. Aiken and Brysting 01–058. CAN. • Plant in sandy habitat. Plants less than 10 cm tall, growing in a sandy area with Puccinellia grasses, near the seashore. N.W.T., Banks Island, Sachs Harbour. 14 July, 1999. Aiken 99–238. CAN. Scale bar in cm. • Close-up of plants in habitat. White flowers, approximately 20 cm high, growing in a wet meadow. Nunavut, Rankin Inlet. Aiken and Brysting 01–058. Scale bar in cm. • Close-up of fly pollination. Plants about 15 cm high, growing with the grass Dupontia fisheri. Note disc florets are being fly pollinated. Nunavut, Rankin Inlet. Aiken and Brysting 01–058. • Flowering head. Flowering head with prominent white ray florets with 2 to 3 teeth on the end of the petals. The outer yellow disc florets are blooming, the ones in the centre are in bud and red. Nunavut, Rankin Inlet. Aiken and Brysting 01–058. CAN. • Close-up of plant in gravel. Plants growing in dry gravel. Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour. Aiken and Brysting 01–078. CAN. Scale bar in cm. • Early flowering heads. Plants with finely divided pinnate leaves, and capitula that are beginning to open. Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour. Aiken and Brysting 01–078. CAN. Scale bare in cm. • Bud with involucral bracts. Very young flowering head surrounded by involucral bracts that have prominent brown margins around the green centres. Note the pinnately divided leaves. Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour. Aiken and Brysting 01–078. CAN. • Close-up of capitulum in bud. Capitulum beginning to open with toothed, white ray florets that are unfolding. Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour. Aiken and Brysting 01–078. CAN. • Opening capitulum. Involucral bracts beginning to reflex, with expanding yellowish ray florets. Note the older disc florets are greenish while the very young disc florets in the centre are yellowish. Nunavut, Southampton Island, Coral Harbour. Aiken and Brysting 01–078. CAN. • Close-up of underside of capitulum. Relatively young capitulum with compact involucral bracts that have a dark brown margin around the inner green zone. Nunavut, Rankin Inlet. Aiken and Brysting 01–058. CAN. • Close-up of underside of capitulum. Close-up of older involucral bracts that are larger and beginning to curl back. 14 July, 1999. Aiken 99–238. CAN. • Close-up of capitulum. Involucrum bracts of subsp. maritimum (seen here) are pale with hyaline margins. Those of subsp. phaeocephalum are dark green with brown margins of . Denmark, Jylland, Harbooer Tange. 19 August, 1980. Photograph by R. Elven. • Arctic Island Distribution.
This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version.
Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.
Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa..