Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

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S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris

General information • Introduction to CD version • Acknowledgements • References • Contacts • Citation • Errata

Interactive key • Using the key

Character List • Implicit Attributes

Descriptions

These descriptions were generated automatically from a DELTA database (Dallwitz 1980; Dallwitz, Paine, and Zurcher 1993). The bold parts are diagnostic descriptions, generated with the aid of Intkey (Dallwitz, Paine and Zurcher 1995, 2000). They distinguish each taxa in at least two respects from the other taxa. Authors have chosen additional characters to appear in bold, on the basis of their diagnostic value.

• PTERIDOPHYTES

• Equisetaceae Michx. ex DC. • Equisetum arvense L. • Equisetum scirpoides Michx. • Equisetum variegatum Schleich. ex F. Weber and D. Mohr

• Lycopodiaceae Mirbel • Diphasiastrum alpinum (L.) Holub • Huperzia selago (L. ) Bernh. ex. Schrank and Mart. • Lycopodium annotinum L. subsp. alpestre (Hartm.) Á. Löve and D. Löve

• Dryopteridaceae Herter • Cystopteris fragilis (L.) Bernh. • Dryopteris fragrans (L.) Schott • Woodsiaceae (Diels) Herter • Woodsia R. Br. • Woodsia alpina (Bolton) Gray • Woodsia glabella R. Br. ex Richardson • Woodsia ilvensis (L.) R. Br.

• SPERMATOPHYTES

• Tofieldiaceae Takht. • Tofieldia Huds. • Tofieldia coccinea Richardson, in Franklin • Tofieldia pusilla (Michx.) Pers.

• Potamogetonaceae Dumortier • Stuckenia filiformis (Pers.) Börner var. borealis (Raf.) H. St. John • Potamogeton pusillus L.

• Orchidaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Corallorhiza trifida Chatelain

• Juncaceae L. • Juncus L. • Juncus arcticus Willd. • Juncus biglumis L. • Juncus castaneus Sm. • Juncus trifidus L. • Juncus triglumis L. s.l. • Luzula DC. • Luzula confusa Lindeberg • Luzula multiflora (Ehrh.) Lej. subsp. frigida (Buchenau) V.I. Krecz. • Luzula nivalis Spreng. • Luzula spicata (L.) DC. • Luzula wahlenbergii Rupr.

• Cyperaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Carex L. • Carex aquatilis Wahlenb. subsp. stans (Drejer) Hultén • Carex arctogena Harry Sm. • Carex atrofusca Schkuhr • Carex bicolor All. • Carex bigelowii Torr. in Schwein. subsp. bigelowii • Carex bigelowii Torr. subsp. lugens (Holm) Egorova • Carex capillaris L. subsp. fuscidula (Krecz. ex T.V. Egorova) Á. Löve and D. Löve • Carex chordorrhiza Ehrh. ex L.f. • Carex fuliginosa Schkuhr subsp. misandra (R. Br.) Nyman • Carex glacialis Mackenzie • Carex glareosa Wahlenb. • Carex gynocrates Wormskjold, in Drejer • Carex holostoma Drejer • Carex krausei Boeck. • Carex lachenalii Schkuhr • Carex macloviana d'Urv. • Carex marina Dewey • Carex maritima Gunnerus • Carex membranacea Hooker • Carex microglochin Wahlenb. • Carex nardina Fr. • Carex norvegica Retz • Carex obtusata Liljeb. • Carex petricosa Dewey • Carex rariflora (Wahlenb.) Sm. • Carex rufina Drejer • Carex rupestris All. • Carex saxatilis L. • Carex scirpoidea Michx. • Carex subspathacea Wormskjold, in Hornem. • Carex supina Willd. ex Wahlenb. subsp. spaniocarpa (Steud.) Hultén • Carex ursina Dewey • Carex vaginata Tausch • Carex williamsii Britton • Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roemer and J.A. Schultes • Eriophorum L. • Eriophorum angustifolium Honck. s.l. • Eriophorum brachyantherum Trautv. and C.A. Meyer • Eriophorum callitrix Cham. ex C.A. Meyer • Eriophorum ×medium Andersson subsp. album Cayouette • Eriophorum russeolum Fr. ex Hartm. subsp. leiocarpum Novoselova • Eriophorum scheuchzeri Hoppe • Eriophorum vaginatum L. • Kobresia Willd. • Kobresia myosuroides (Vill.) Fiori • Kobresia sibirica (Turcz. ex Ledeb.) Boeck. • Kobresia simpliciuscula (Wahlenb.) Mack. subsp. subholarctica T.V. Egorova • Trichophorum cespitosum (L.) Hartm.

• Poaceae Barnhart • Agrostis mertensii Trin. • Alopecurus magellanicus Lam. • Arctagrostis latifolia (R. Br.) Griseb. subsp. latifolia • Arctophila fulva (Trin.) N.J. Andersson • Calamagrostis Adan • Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. subsp. langsdorffii (Link) Hultén • Calamagrostis chordorrhiza A.E. Porsild • Calamagrostis lapponica (Wahlenb.) Hartm. • Calamagrostis neglecta (Ehrh.) P. Gaertn., B. Mey. and Scherb. subsp. groenlandica (Schrank) Matuszk • Calamagrostis purpurascens R. Br. • Deschampsia (P. Beauv.) • Deschampsia alpina (L.) Roem. and Schult. • Deschampsia brevifolia R. Br. • Deschampsia sukatschewii (Popl.) Roshev. subsp. borealis (Trautv.) Tzvelev • Dupontia fisheri R. Br. s.l. • Elymus alaskanus (Scribn. and Merr.) A. Löve • Festuca L. • Festuca altaica Trin. • Festuca baffinensis Polunin • Festuca brachyphylla Schult. and Schult. f. • Festuca edlundiae S. Aiken, Consaul and Lefkovitch • Festuca hyperborea Holmen ex Frederiksen • Festuca rubra L. subsp. rubra L. • Festuca rubra L. subsp. richardsonii (Hooker) Hultén • Festuca viviparoidea Krajina ex Pavlick s.l. • Hierochloë R. Br. • Hierochloë alpina (Swartz) Roem. and Schult. subsp. alpina • Hierochloë pauciflora R. Br. • Hordeum jubatum L. • Leymus mollis (Trin.) Hara subsp. villosissimus (Scribn.) Á. Löve and D. Löve • Lolium perenne L. • Phippsia algida (Sol.) R. Br. • Phippsia concinna (Th.Fr.) Lindeb. • Pleuropogon sabinei R. Br. • Poa L. • Poa abbreviata R. Br. • Poa alpina L. • Poa arctica R. Br. subsp. arctica • Poa arctica R. Br. subsp. caespitans Nannf. • Poa glauca Vahl • Poa hartzii Gand. • Poa pratensis L. subsp. alpigena (Lindm.) Hiitonen • Poa pratensis L. subsp. colpodea (Th.Fries) Tzvelev • Puccinellia Parl. • Puccinellia andersonii Swallen • Puccinellia angustata (R. Br.) E.L. Rand and Redfield • Puccinellia arctica (Hooker) Fernald and Weath. • Puccinellia bruggemannii T.J. Sørensen • Puccinellia nuttalliana (Schult.) Hitchc. • Puccinellia phryganodes (Trin.) Scribn. and Merr. • Puccinellia pumila (Macoun ex Vasey) Hitchc. • Puccinellia tenella (Lange) Holmb. subsp. langeana (Berlin) Tzvelev • Puccinellia vaginata (Lange) Fernald and Weath. • Puccinellia vahliana (Liebm.) Scribn. and Merr. • ×Pucciphippsia vacillans (Th. Fr.) Tzvelev • Trisetum spicatum (L.) K. Richter

• Papaveraceae A.L. de Jussieu • Papaver L. • Papaver keelei A.E. Porsild • Papaver spp.

• Ranunculaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Anemone L. • Anemone parviflora Michx. • Anemone patens (L.) Mill. var. multifida Pritz. • Anemone richardsonii Hooker • Caltha palustris L. • Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. • Ranunculus L. • Ranunculus allenii B.L. Rob. • Ranunculus arcticus Richardson • Ranunculus aquatilis L. var. diffusus With. • Ranunculus cymbalaria Pursh • Ranunculus gmelinii DC. subsp. gmelinii • Ranunculus hyperboreus Rottb. • Ranunculus lapponicus L. • Ranunculus nivalis L. • Ranunculus pallasii Schltdl. • Ranunculus pygmaeus Wahlenb. • Ranunculus sabinei R. Br. • Ranunculus subrigidus W.B. Drew • Ranunculus sulphureus Sol. • Thalictrum alpinum L.

• Plantaginaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Plantago L. • Plantago canescens M.F. Adams • Plantago maritima subsp. borealis (Lange) A. Blytt and O. Dahl

• Caryophyllaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Arenaria L. • Arenaria capillaris Poir. • Arenaria humifusa Wahlenb. • Cerastium L. • Cerastium alpinum L. • Cerastium arcticum Lange • Cerastium arvense L. • Cerastium beeringianum Cham. and Schltdl. • Cerastium cerastoides (L.) Britton • Cerastium regelii Ostenf. • Honckenya peploides (L.) Ehrh. subsp. diffusa (Hornem.) Hultén • Minuartia L. • Minuartia biflora (L.) Schinz and Thellung • Minuartia elegans (Cham. et Schltdl.) Schischk. • Minuartia rossii (R. Br. ex Richardson) Graebn. • Minuartia rubella (Wahlenb.) Hiern • Minuartia stricta (Sw.) Hiern • Sagina L. • Sagina caespitosa (J.Vahl) Lange • Sagina nivalis (Lindblom) Fries • Sagina nodosa (L.) Fenzl subsp. borealis G.E. Crow • Silene L. • Silene acaulis (L.) Jacq. • Silene involucrata (Cham. and Schltdl.) Bocquet • Silene ostenfeldii (A.E. Porsild) J.K. Morton • Silene sorensenis (B. Boivin) Bocquet • Silene uralensis (Rupr.) Bocquet subsp. arctica (Th.Fr.) Bocquet • Stellaria L. • Stellaria crassifolia Ehrh. • Stellaria humifusa Rottb. • Stellaria longipes Goldie • Viscaria alpina (L.) G. Don

• Polygonaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Bistorta vivipara (L.) Delarbre • Koenigia islandica L. • Oxyria digyna (L.) Hill • Rumex arcticus Trautv.

• Portulacaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Montia fontana L.

• Plumbaginaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Armeria scabra Pall. ex Roem. and Schult.

• Crassulaceae A.P. de Candolle • Rhodiola rosea L.

• Haloragaceae R. Br. • Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov

• Saxifragaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Chrysosplenium tetrandrum (N. Lund ex Malmgren) Th. Fr. • Micranthes Haw • Saxifraga foliolosa R.Br. • Micranthes hieracifolia (Waldst. and Kit.) Haworth • Micranthes nivalis (L.) Small • Micranthes tenuis (Wahlenb.) Small • Parnassia L. • Parnassia kotzebuei Cham. ex Spreng. • Parnassia palustris L. • Saxifraga L. • Saxifraga aizoides L. • Saxifraga cernua L. • Saxifraga cespitosa L. • Saxifraga eschscholtzii Sternb. • Saxifraga hirculus L. • Saxifraga hyperborea R. Br. • Saxifraga oppositifolia L. • Saxifraga paniculata Mill. • Saxifraga platysepala (Trautv.) Tolm. • Saxifraga rivularis L. • Saxifraga serpyllifolia Pursh • Saxifraga tricuspidata Rothb.

• Linaceae A.S. Gray • Linum lewisii Pursh

• Salicaceae Mirbel • Salix alaxensis (Andersson) Coville • Salix arctica Pall. • Salix arctophila Cock. ex Heller • Salix calcicola Fernald and Wieg. • Salix fuscescens Andersson • Salix glauca L. subsp. callicarpaea (Trautv.) Böcher • Salix glauca L. subsp. stipulifera (Flod. ex Hayren) Hiitonen • Salix herbacea L. • Salix niphoclada Rydberg • Salix planifolia Pursh • Salix polaris Wahlenb. • Salix pulchra Cham. • Salix reticulata L. • Salix richardsonii Hooker • Salix uva-ursi Pursh • Salix vestita Pursh

• Fabaceae Lindley • Astragalus L. • Astragalus alpinus L. • Astragalus australis (L.) Lam. • Astragalus eucosmus B.L. Rob. • Hedysarum L. • Hedysarum americanum (Michx.) Britton • Hedysarum boreale Nutt. subsp. mackenzii (Richardson) S.L. Welsh • Lupinus arcticus S. Wats. subsp. arcticus • Oxytropis DC. • Oxytropis arctica R. Br. • Oxytropis arctobia Bunge • Oxytropis borealis DC. • Oxytropis deflexa (Pall.) DC. subsp. foliolosa (Hooker) Cody • Oxytropis hudsonica (Greene) Fernald • Oxytropis maydelliana Trautv. subsp. melanocephala (Hooker) A.E. Porsild • Oxytropis podocarpa A. Gray • Oxytropis terrae-novae Fernald • Oxytropis varians (Rydberg) K. Schum.

• Betulaceae S.F. Gray • Betula L. • Betula glandulosa Michx. • Betula nana L. subsp. nana

• Rosaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Acomastylis rossii (R. Br.) Greene • Argentina egedii (Wormskjold) Rydberg • Comarum palustre L. • Dryas integrifolia Vahl • Dryas punctata Juz. • Potentilla L. • Potentilla arenosa (Turcz.) Juz. • Potentilla chamissonis Hultén • Potentilla biflora Willd. ex Schltdl. • Potentilla crantzii (Crantz) G. Beck ex Fritsch • Potentilla nivea L. complex • Potentilla hyparctica Malte s.l. • Potentilla nivea L. • Potentilla pulchella R. Br. • Potentilla rubricaulis Lehm. aggregate • Potentilla tridentata Sol. • Potentilla uniflora Ledeb. • Potentilla vahliana Lehm. • Rubus chamaemorus L. • Sibbaldia procumbens L.

• Onagraceae A.L. de Jussieu • Chamerion (Raf.) Raf. • Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub • Chamerion latifolium (L.) Holub • Epilobium L. • Epilobium anagallidifolium Lam. • Epilobium arcticum Sam. • Epilobium palustre L.

• Brassicaceae Burnett • Arabis alpina L. • Arabidopsis arenicola (Richardson ex Hook.) Al-Shehbaz, R. Elven, D. Murray, and S.I. Warwick • Braya Sternb. and Hoppe • Braya glabella Richardson • Braya glabella Richardson subsp. glabella • Braya glabella Richardson subsp. purpurascens (R. Br.) Cody • Braya humilis (C. A. Meyer) B. L. Robinson • Braya thorild-wulffii Ostenf. • Cardamine L. • Cardamine bellidifolia L. • Cardamine digitata Richardson • Cardamine pratensis L. subsp. angustifolia (Hooker) O.E. Schultz • Cochlearia groenlandica L. • Descurainia sophioides (Fisch.) Schulz • Draba L. • Draba alpina L. • Draba arctica J.Vahl • Draba arctogena (E. Ekman) E. Ekman • Draba borealis DC. • Draba cinerea Adams • Draba corymbosa R. Br. ex DC. • Draba crassifolia Graham • Draba fladnizensis Wulfen • Draba glabella Pursh • Draba lactea Adams • Draba micropetala Hooker • Draba nivalis Lilj. • Draba norvegica Gunnerus • Draba oblongata R. Br. ex DC. • Draba oligosperma Hooker • Draba pauciflora R. Br. • Draba subcapitata Simmons • Erysimum pallasii (Pursh) Fernald • Eutrema edwardsii R. Br. • Lesquerella arctica (Wormskjold. ex Hornem.) S. Watson • Parrya R. Br. • Parrya arctica R. Br. • Parrya nudicaulis (L.) Regel • Transberingia bursifolia (DC.) Al-Shehbaz and O'Kane

• Diapensiaceae Lindley • Diapensia lapponica L. subsp. lapponica

• Empetraceae A.F. Gray • Empetrum nigrum L.

• Ericaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Arctous (A. Gray) Nied. • Arctous alpina (L.) Nied. • Arctous rubra (Rehder and E.H. Wilson) Nakai and Koidzumi • Cassiope tetragona (L.) D. Don • Harrimanella hypnoides (L.) Coville • Ledum palustre L. subsp. decumbens (Aiton) Hultén • Loiseleuria procumbens (L.) Desv. • Phyllodoce caerulea (L.) Bab. • Rhododendron lapponicum (L.) Wahlenb. • Vaccinium L. • Vaccinium uliginosum L. subsp. microphyllum (Lange) Tolm. • Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. subsp. minus (Lodd.) Hultén

• Pyrolaceae Dumortier • Orthilia secunda (L.) House subsp. obtusata (Turcz.) Böcher • Pyrola grandiflora Radius • Pyrola minor L.

• Polemoniaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Phlox hoodii Richardson • Polemonium boreale Adams

• Primulaceae Ventenat • Androsace L. • Androsace chamaejasme Wulfen subsp. andersonii (Hultén) Hultén • Androsace septentrionalis L. • Primula borealis Duby • Primula stricta Hornem.

• Boraginaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Mertensia Roth • Mertensia drummondii (Lehm.) G. Don • Mertensia maritima (L.) Gray var. tenella Th. Fr.

• Gentianaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Gentianella propinqua (Richardson) J.M. Gillett • Comastoma tenellum (Rottb.) Toyok. • Lomatogonium rotatum (L.) Fr. ex Fernald

• Hippuridaceae Link • Hippuris L. • Hippuris ×lanceolata Retz. • Hippuris vulgaris L.

• Lentibulariaceae L.C. Richard • Pinguicula vulgaris L.

• Scrophulariaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Bartsia alpina L. • Castilleja Mutis ex L.f. • Castilleja elegans Ostenf. • Castilleja septentrionalis Lindl. • Euphrasia L. • Euphrasia disjuncta Fernald and Wiegand • Euphrasia wettsteinii G. Gussarova • Pedicularis L. • Pedicularis albolabiata (Hultén) Kozhevn • Pedicularis arctoeuropaea (Hultén) Molau and D.F. Murray • Pedicularis capitata Adams • Pedicularis flammea L. • Pedicularis hirsuta L. • Pedicularis labradorica Wirsing • Pedicularis lanata Willd. ex Cham. and Schltdl. • Pedicularis langsdorffii Fisch. ex Steven • Pedicularis lapponica L. • Pedicularis sudetica complex Willd. • Veronica wormskjoldii Roem. and Schult.

• Campanulaceae A.L. de Jussieu • Campanula L. • Campanula rotundifolia L. • Campanula uniflora L.

• Asteraceae Dumortier • Achillea millefolium L. subsp. borealis (Bong.) Breitung • Antennaria Gaertn. • Antennaria alpina (L.) Gaertner subsp. canescens (Lange) Chmiel. • Antennaria alpina (L.) Gaertn. subsp. porsildii (E. Ekman) Chmiel. • Antennaria friesiana (Trautv.) E. Ekman. subsp. friesiana • Antennaria media Greene subsp. compacta (Malte) Chmiel. • Antennaria monocephala (Torr. and A. Gray) DC. subsp. angustata (Greene) Hultén • Arnica angustifolia Vahl • Artemisia borealis Pallas subsp. borealis • Artemisia borealis Pall. subsp. richardsoniana (Besser) Korobkov • Artemisia hyperborea Rydberg • Artemisia tilesii Ledeb. subsp. tilesii • Askellia nana (Richardson) W.A.Weber • Erigeron compositus Pursh • Erigeron humilis Graham • Erigeron porsildii G.L. Nesom and D.F. Murray • Erigeron uniflorus L. subsp. eriocephalus (J.Vahl) Cronquist • Hulteniella integrifolia (Richardson) Tzvelev • Packera hyperborealis (Greenm.) Á. Löve and D. Löve • Petasites frigidus (L.) Fr. s.l. • Solidago multiradiata Aiton • Symphyotrichum pygmaeum (Lindley) Brouillet and S. Selliah • Taraxacum F.H. Wigg. • Taraxacum ceratophorum (Ledeb.) DC. • Taraxacum holmenianum Sahlin ex Kirschner and Stepánek • Taraxacum hyparcticum Dahlst. • Taraxacum phymatocarpum J.Vahl • Tephroseris (Rchb.) Rchb. • Tephroseris frigida (Richardson) Holub • Tephroseris palustris (L.) Fourr. subsp. congesta (R. Br.) Holub • Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) W.D.J. Koch subsp. phaeocephalum (Rupr.) Hämet-Ahti


This publication is available on the internet (posted May 2011) and on CD-ROM (published in 2007). These versions are identical in content, except that the errata page for CD-ROM is accessible on the main index page of the web version..

Recommended citation for the web-based version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. http://nature.ca/aaflora/data, accessed on DATE.

Recommended citation for the CD-ROM version of this publication: Aiken, S.G., Dallwitz, M.J., Consaul, L.L., McJannet, C.L., Boles, R.L., Argus, G.W., Gillett, J.M., Scott, P.J., Elven, R., LeBlanc, M.C., Gillespie, L.J., Brysting, A.K., Solstad, H., and Harris, J.G. 2007. Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval. [CD-ROM] NRC Research Press, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.

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