(a) Ellesmere, Axel Heiberg, and Devon Islands (Beschel 1970): 1, ice caps; 2, polar desert; 3, Luzula steppe; 4, polar steppe; 5, Dryas tundra; 6, Cassiope tundra. (b) Novaya Zemlya (Alexandrova 1960 in Tedrow 1977): 1, ice caps; 2, northern variant of alpine polar desert; 3, southern variant of alpine polar desert; 4, northern variant of polar desert zone; 4, southern variant of polar desert zone; 6, alpine arctic tundra; 7, northern variant of arctic tundra subzone; 8, southern variant of arctic tundra subzone.
R.E. Beschel. 1970. The diversity of tundra vegetation. In Productivity and conservation in Northern Circumpolar Lands. Edited by W.A. Fuller and P.G. Kevan. I.U.C.N. Publ. 16 (n.s.). pp. 85–92.